CMS Guide to Anti-Bribery and Cor­rup­tion Laws

03/04/2016

We are delighted to present the fourth edition of the CMS Guide to Anti-Bribery and Corruption Laws. Since the last edition was published in 2014, there have been significant changes to the global anti-corruption landscape. Many of the countries covered in the following pages have updated, strengthened and widened the scope of their anti-corruption laws.

This edition of the Guide assesses the laws in over 60 offices globally and includes full coverage of the BRIC nations, as well as increased coverage in Asia (Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia), the Middle East (the UAE and Lebanon) and South America (Mexico). This edition also includes coverage of Turkey.

We are very grateful to Khaitan & Co., the leading Indian law firm with offices in Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata and Bangalore, for their continued contribution to the Guide. We are also very grateful to Rajah & Tann Asia (a transnational law firm, with offices across Asia) for contributing chapters on Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. We continue to work closely with both firms in their regions.

Since the last edition of the Guide, tales of corruption have been almost a daily occurrence in the global press – with the Arab Spring (in part a mass response to corruption), FIFA and Brazilian “Car Wash” scandals to name but a few, highlighting that corruption can exist in many forms across many industries, sectors and jurisdictions, sometimes operating unchecked for many years at huge cost and harm. With unprecedented levels of press and public scrutiny, coupled with an ever-hardening attitude towards corruption, it is unsurprising that many countries are strengthening their existing laws and enforcement mechanisms and increasing the potential sanctions for wrongdoing, in an attempt to deter unethical behaviour.

As an example, the Netherlands undertook a major revision of its anti-corruption law in 2015, resulting in a widening of the existing offences (e.g. to capture a promise of a bribe, whether or not fulfilled) and an increase to the maximum penalties that can be imposed (up to eight years’ imprisonment for individuals in some cases). We have also seen similar reforms in Portugal, where the mere attempt to give or promise of an improper benefit is now sufficient to trigger criminal liability. In Ukraine, the law has been reformed to permit corporate liability for corruption offences, where previously only individuals could be liable.

Of the 26 countries covered by the previous edition of the Guide, at least five have undertaken significant reforms of their anti-corruption laws since 2014 (the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Switzerland and Ukraine), with a further nine countries having increased the penalties available for breaches (Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia).

As for the new countries covered, it is interesting to see the different approaches taken, even within regions, to combatting corruption. For example, in Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand), only one of the countries covered (Singapore) criminalises private sector bribery and the penalties across the relevant countries range significantly from a maximum of five years’ imprisonment (for a bribe-payer in Thailand) to life imprisonment (for a public official recipient in Indonesia) or the death penalty (for a public official recipient in Thailand).

On the other hand, the UAE and Lebanon are much more closely aligned in their approach – both have public and private sector bribery offences (albeit that the scope of the private sector offences are less extensive than those applicable to the public sector). Both countries also provide a defence where the bribe-payer notifies the authorities of the bribe before it otherwise comes to their attention.

Publication
CMS Guide to Anti-Bribery and Corruption Laws 2016
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Authors

Picture of Zsolt Okanyi
Dr. Zsolt Okányi
Partner
Budapest
Picture of Omar Qureshi
Omar Qureshi
Partner
London
Picture of Marco Lacaita
Marco Lacaita
Partner
Tirana
Picture of Besnik Duraj
Besnik Duraj
Associate
Tirana
Picture of Peter Huber
Peter Huber
Partner
Vienna
Picture of Aakriti Chandihok
Aakriti Chandihok
Associate
Vienna
Picture of Nedzida Salihovic-Whalen
Nedžida Salihović-Whalen
Partner
Sarajevo
Picture of Indir Osmic
Indir Osmić
Attorney-at-Law
Sarajevo
Picture of Ted Rhodes
Ted Rhodes
Partner
Rio de Janeiro
Picture of Glenn McDonald
Glenn McDonald
Senior Associate
Rio de Janeiro
Picture of Atanas Bangachev
Atanas Bangachev
Partner
Sofia
Picture of Valentin Savov
Valentin Savov
Senior Associate
Sofia
Picture of Ulrike Glueck
Dr. Ulrike Glueck
Managing Partner
Shanghai
Picture of Hrvoje Bardek
Hrvoje Bardek
Partner
Zagreb
Picture of Tomas Matejovsky
Tomáš Matĕjovský
Partner
Prague
Picture of Harkee Wilson
Harkee Wilson
Legal Director
Dubai
Picture of Dora Petranyi
Dóra Petrányi
Partner
Budapest
Picture of Emilio Battaglia
Emilio Battaglia
Partner
Rome
Dian Brouwer
Dian Brouwer
Partner
Utrecht
Picture of Arkadiusz Korzeniewski
Arkadiusz Korzeniewski
Partner
Warsaw
Picture of Maciej Kopczynski
Maciej Kopczynski
Senior Associate
Warsaw
Picture of Gabriel Sidere
Gabriel Sidere
Managing Partner
Bucharest
Picture of Horia Draghici
Horia Draghici
Partner
Bucharest
Sergey Yuryev
Partner
Moscow
Picture of Milica Popovic
Milica Popović
Partner
Belgrade
Luka Fabiani
Local Partner
Ljubljana
Picture of Carlos Aguilar
Carlos Aguilar
Partner
Madrid
Alican Babalioglu
Alican Babalioglu
Partner
Istanbul
Picture of Olexander Martinenko
Olexander Martinenko
Senior Partner
Kyiv (Volodymyrska Street)
Maria-Orlyk-CMS-UA
Maria Orlyk
Partner
Kyiv (Instytutska Street)
Image of Petr Benes
Petr Beneš
Senior Associate
Prague
Kushal Gandhi
Kushal Gandhi
Senior Associate
London
Markus Schöner
Dr. Markus Schöner, M.Jur. (Oxford)
Partner
Hamburg
Harald W Potinecke
Dr. Harald W Potinecke
Partner
Munich
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