Sexual harassment is prohibited by the Austrian Equal Treatment Act (“Gleichbehandlungsgesetz”) passed in 2004 and by the Federal Equal Treatment Act (“Bundes-Gleichbehandlungsgesetz”) passed in 1993. Since then, there have been amendments due to European Union legislation. The rules in both acts follow the same scheme and address:
- sex-related harassment i.e. unwanted conduct related to the protected characteristic of sex;
- harassment of a sexual nature i.e. unwanted conduct of a sexual nature.
(Sexual) harassment is subject to the Equal Treatment Act if it (1) results in an intimidating, hostile or humiliating work environment for the people concerned or this conduct is aimed to do so, or (2) if it results in a less or more favourable treatment based on a person's rejection of, or submission to, sex-related harassment or sexual harassment.
Section 6 Austrian Equal Treatment Act prohibits harassment:
- by the employer,
- by a third party related to the employment,
- by a third party not related to the employment.
The Act also holds the employer liable if he or she fails to provide a remedy against (sexual) harassment.
From a Swiss perspective, the term sexual harassment in the workplace covers any behaviour with a sexual aspect or based on gender that is unwanted by and humiliating to the recipient.
Employers are under an obligation to ensure that employees are not sexually harassed, and that any victim of sexual harassment suffers no further adverse consequences: (art. 328 para. 1 of the Code of Obligations).
Swiss law also provides for an express prohibition of discrimination through sexual harassment in the workplace, which includes in particular threats, the promise of advantages, the use of coercion and the exertion of pressure in order to obtain favours of a sexual nature (art. 3 of the Gender Equality Act 1995).
In addition, administrative law imposes the obligation on employers to take the measures necessary to protect the employee's personal integrity, which includes measures against sexual harassment under the Equality Acts.
Sexual harassment may result in a prosecution. Depending on the severity, a fine, a monetary penalty or a custodial sentence may be imposed.
It is also worth mentioning that various collective bargaining agreements set out provisions prohibiting sexual harassment.
Colombia started to regulate harassment in the workplace in 2006 with the enactment f Law 1010 of 2006, This law establishes the measures that employers must take in order to avoid and mitigate harassment taking place in the workplace, including the creation of internal prevention and conciliation procedures in situations where workplace harassment has occurred in the company. In relation to sexual harassment, Article 2 of Law 1010 of 2006 defines workplace harassment as: “all act(s) of violence that affects the physical or moral integrity, physical or sexual freedom and the goods of someone who performs as an employee”.
Additionally, it is important to highlight that besides the employment law perspective, the Colombian Criminal Code establishes that sexual harassment and other sexual conduct (such as rape, abusive sexual behaviours) are considered a crime. (Articles 205 to 210 of Colombian Criminal Code).