The existing general liability regime that applies to all cars on the road in Poland currently applies to AVs, as there are no liability rules specific to AVs.
Owner: The vehicle possessor (including registered owner) would be liable for damages caused to persons or assets by a vehicle propelled by natural forces, this meaning a vehicle powered by an engine-own propulsion system. The vehicle possessor will be exempt from liability if the cause of the damages was force majeure, fault of the person who suffered the damage or if the damages were solely caused by a third party.
Driver / operator: See above. The actual driver of the vehicle is considered to fall under the term vehicle possessor.
Manufacturer: There are no legal provisions that specifically apply to liability for damages caused by a car in automated driving mode. However, the manufacturer could, based on general liability laws, be held liable for its negligent actions if it led to a structural error of the vehicle. (The injured party would have to prove fault). The manufacturer could also be liable under liability damages for hazardous products, which are moveable goods and carry strict liability regardless of fault.