CMS Expert Guide to employment termination law and legislation

Global comparison

1. Dismissal of employees

1.1 Reasons for dismissal

An employer may not dismiss an employee without a legally valid cause.

Dismissal may be based on personal grounds (e.g. disciplinary dismissal, dismissal due to professional inadequacy, dismissal due to incapacity) or economic grounds (e.g. economic difficulties, technological changes), or subject to specific conditions, without stating a specific motive.

Notice may be given without providing any reason (‘Kündigungsfreiheit’).

Both employer and employee may end the employment relationship without providing reason or cause.

However, a dismissal must not be abusive (wrongful or unlawful dismissal). Subject to certain exceptions, such a notice is unlawful where issued:

  • due to an inherent personal quality of the other party (skin colour, nationality, sexuality); or
  • because the other party exercises a constitutional right; or
  • solely in order to prevent claims under the employment relationship from accruing to the other party; or
  • because the other party asserts claims under the employment relationship in good faith; or
  • because the other party is performing military service or a non-voluntary legal obligation; or
  • because the employee is or is not a member of an employees’ organisation or because he carries out trade union activities in a lawful manner; or
  • while the employee is an elected employee representative on the works council and the employer cannot cite just cause to terminate his employment; or
  • in the context of mass redundancies ordered by the employer if the consultation process is not observed.

In any of the above circumstances, the notice remains valid,  but the party abusively giving notice may be obliged by the court to pay an indemnity of up to six months' salary.

The employer may not terminate the employment relationship during the following periods, and notice given during these periods is void:

  • while the other party is performing Swiss compulsory military service, and during the four weeks preceding and following the service if the service lasts for more than 11 days; or
  • while the employee, through no fault of his own, is (partially) prevented from working due to illness or accident, for up to 30 days in the first year of service, 90 days between the second and fifth years of service, or 180 days thereafter; or
  • during the pregnancy of an employee, and for 16 weeks following the birth.

Generally, employers in Austria are not required to justify ordinary dismissals (Kündigungen). Nevertheless, they must observe prescribed notice periods and termination dates.

If an establishment employs five or more employees, however, these employees enjoy “General Protection against Dismissals”: an employee may challenge a dismissal if it has adverse effects on the individual’s personal life. In these cases, the employer must justify the dismissal for reasons related to employee capabilities, conduct or operational requirements if challenged by the employee.

Certain “vulnerable” employees enjoy additional “Special Protection against Dismissal” and may only be dismissed for one of several specific reasons, often only with the prior consent of competent authorities. These include women who are pregnant or who have recently given birth, parents on parental leave, works council members and employees formally classified as disabled persons.

Discriminatory dismissals or dismissals due to “illegal reasons” can also be challenged by employees.

1.2 Form

The employee must be notified of the dismissal in writing.

There is no specific requirement. Notice of termination may be communicated verbally or by other means. For evidentiary purposes, it is strongly recommended that notice be issued in writing.

Unless otherwise stipulated in a collective agreement or employment contract, dismissals do not require any particular form. However, giving notice in writing is recommended. If “Special Protection against Dismissal” applies, rules may differ.

1.3 Notice period

In the event of dismissal, the law provides that an employee is entitled to a notice of a duration which varies depending on his seniority as follows:

  • Length of service of less than six months: no notice period applicable;
  • Length of service between six months and less than two years: one month;
  • Length of service of at least two years: two months.

For any dismissal, the employer may choose whether the employee works during the notice period.

In either case, employee is entitled to receive the same salary, including any benefits.

The statutory notice periods include: one month in the first year of service; two months between the second and ninth year of service; and three months thereafter.

The notice period may vary depending on the written individual or collective employment contract. however, the notice period may be reduced to less than one month only by collective employment contract and only for the first year of service. The notice period must be the same for both parties.

The parties may agree on a probationary period of up to three months with a notice period of seven days.

Although Austrian law does provide statutory minimum notice periods and dates, employers are free to designate their own notice regimes based on collective agreements and employment contracts. In case of conflicting regulations, however, employees will always benefit from the most favourable rule, pursuant to the “favourability principle” (Günstigkeitsprinzip).

Austrian employment law distinguishes between white-collar (Angestellte) and blue-collar workers (Arbeiter), providing separate notice models for each.

White-collar workers are entitled to receive at least six weeks notice and up to five months notice, always depending on the length of their employment relationship. These terms may be modified, although no notice period may exceed six months. In addition, white-collar workers benefit from statutory notice dates, ensuring that employment relationships may only end at the end of any given annual quarter. It is possible to agree contractually that a termination is possible on the 15th or last day of any given month.

If not otherwise stipulated by collective agreement, blue-collar workers are subject to a notice period of at least 14 days. In practice, however, collective agreements often guarantee more generous notice periods. 

From 1 January 2021, the notice periods and termination dates for white-collar workers will apply to blue-collar workers. In industries where seasonal businesses predominate, collective agreements may contain different provisions and set shorter notice periods. When concluding employment agreements with blue-collar workers, it is also possible to contractually agree on a termination on the 15th or last day of any given month.

1.4 Involvement of works council

Works councils do not exist in Monaco. A staff representative (if established) must be properly informed prior to a collective redundancies.

Except for mass dismissals, there is no statutory requirement to involve a works council.

If a works council exists at an establishment, it must be informed of any proposed dismissals at least one week in advance. Within this timeframe, the works council may object, explicitly approve or refrain from commenting on the dismissal. The termination is void if the employer fails to comply with this requirement, either by failing to notify the works council or by failing to wait for its response within that week.

1.5 Involvement of a union

No involvement for dismissals.

No involvement.

No involvement.

1.6 Approval of state authorities necessary

Mandatory for employees with legal protection because of their private life or their mandate.

This protection applies to staff representatives, union delegates, pregnant women, employees taking maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave or family support leave, members of the Labour Court, harassment referents.

The relevant Labour Authority has to be informed of projected collective redundancies prior to their dismissal, and grant prior approval.

Not necessary.

Obligatory only for certain groups of employees (e.g. severely disabled persons, works council representatives, pregnant women, and employees on parental leave).

1.7 Collective redundancies

The implementation of collective redundancies is mainly regulated by law and the National Collective Bargaining Agreement, which imposes some procedural steps prior to implementing any such decision.

Three main issues must be considered regarding the preparation and implementation of a collective social plan:

  • Drafting an information document containing all essential elements

regarding the decision to restructure, its motivation, its implementation and the measures taken by the employer to minimise any adverse impacts on employees;

  • Circulating the information to staff representatives, discussing it with them and collecting their comments and choices about measures taken to implement the restructuring (i.e., the measures adopted to minimise the number of dismissals); and
  • Implementing the restructuring plan, by obtaining the required authorisations as the case may be, notifying employees of their terminations and paying termination indemnities.

The statutory provisions regarding mass dismissals apply where the employer – within a time period of 30 days – gives notice for reasons unrelated to any particular employee and affecting:

  1. at least ten employees at a business normally employing between 21 and 99 employees; or
  2. at least 10% of the employees at a business normally employing between 100 and 300 employees; or
  3. at least 30 employees at a business normally employing more than 300 employees.

The provisions governing mass redundancies do not apply in the event that business operations have ceased by court order or mass redundancies have occurred due to bankruptcy or a composition agreement with assignment of assets.

Prior to giving notice, the employer must consult the employee’s representative body or the employees, and at the same time notify the cantonal labour office in writing of the planned mass dismissal. these bodies have consultation rights only. Neither the employees nor the cantonal office are able to block a mass dismissal.

The employer is obliged to enter into social-plan negotiations if it (i) usually employs at least 250 employees and (ii) intends to terminate at least 30 employees within 30 days for reasons that are unrelated to an individual employee. Notices given over a longer period but based on the same operational decision must be added together.

The employer negotiates:

  • with the employee associations that are party to the collective employment contract if a party to this collective employment contract;
  • with the organisation representing the employees; or
  • directly with the employees if they have no representive organisation.

An arbitral tribunal will establish a social plan by way of an arbitral award if such negotiations fail.

When collective dismissals (Massenkündigungen) are imminent, employers are required to notify the Austrian Employment Service 30 days in advance. For the sake of this notification procedure, collective dismissals are defined as employment terminations affecting:

  1. at least five workers in an establishment of 21 to 99 employees; or
  2. 5% or more of the workforce at an establishment of 100 to 600 employees; or
  3. at least 30 workers at an establishment of more than 600 employees; or
  4. at least five workers aged 50 or over, regardless of company size.

The requirements of the notification procedure are met if the employer informs the competent agency in writing and waits one month before carrying out the intended dismissals. Any failure to observe these rules will render all pertinent dismissals void.

1.8 Summary dismissals

Dismissal without notice is only possible in case of gross misconduct. In such a case, the employee receives no dismissal indemnity or notice period indemnity. The employee is still entitled to unemployment insurance benefits.

Both the employer and employee may terminate the employment relationship with immediate effect at any time for cause.

The requirements for termination for cause are high. There must be a severe breach of contract and – except for very serious cases (e.g. theft) – a clear warning must be given, which is then ignored by the other party. The notice must be issued within two to three days of the party becoming aware of the serious breach allowing termination for cause.

A summary dismissal (Entlassung) does not require observance of any particular notice periods but must be issued without undue delay. Summary dismissals are possible for good reasons only, as regulated by law. Disloyalty, untrustworthiness, or persistent refusal to carry out one’s contractually agreed duties are typical reasons for a summary dismissal.

Summary dismissals are effective even if they do not meet the above requirements. However, summary dismissal may then be treated as a regular dismissal, meaning the respective protection against dismissal is applicable.

1.9 Consequences if requirements are not met

Should the employer dismiss an employee on personal or economic grounds without a valid cause, the employer would have to pay a dismissal indemnity.

In addition, the employee could claim damages for injuries suffered due to his / her wrongful dismissal.

In case of ordinary dismissals:

  • in case of unfair dismissal, the notice remains valid, but the party abusively giving notice may be obliged by the court to pay an indemnity of up to six months' salary.
  • The employer must not terminate the employment relationship during certain protected periods, as mentioned above under ‘Reasons for dismissal’. any notice given during these periods is void. If any of these circumstances apply after notice has been given, the notice remains valid but is extended accordingly.

Where a termination is made with immediate effect for cause but the requirements are not met (e.g. no serious breach, no or insufficient warning, late notice), the employee is entitled to the salary for the period until his contract expires or would have been ordinarily terminated. In addition, the court may require the employer to pay an indemnity of up to six months' salary.

In a case of mass dismissal, a notice of termination given without or before completion of the consultation process is deemed abusive. The notice of termination remains valid, but the employer is obliged to pay an indemnity to the employee of a sum fixed by the court not exceeding two months' salary.

Non-compliance by the terminating party with the prescribed or agreed periods or dates of notice constitutes untimely notice. Although such untimely notice remains effective, it entitles the employee to dismissal compensation (Kündigungsentschädigung). Such compensation consists of the remuneration that the employee would have received had the dismissal been properly expressed (i.e. all due remuneration between the actual termination of employment and the date of termination prescribed by law, collective agreement, works agreement or employment contract).

An employee is entitled to General Protection against Dismissal may claim reinstatement in court. Reinstatement is granted if it is proven that the termination of the employment contract has adverse personal effects on the employee's life (e.g. little chance of finding employment of similar standing and income in a reasonable time) and the employer cannot adequately justify the termination.

1.10 Severance pay

Dismissal indemnity is payable unless the dismissal is for gross misconduct. The amount payable is mainly set by the collective bargaining agreement, but must not be less than the French legal dismissal indemnity (since 27 September 2017: 25% of the monthly gross salary until ten years of seniority and one third of the monthly salary as of the tenth‘s year). A higher indemnity is payable in case of dismissal without a stated motive. Indemnity is also payable for unused accrued paid holidays and for the notice period if the employer chooses to release the employee from performing it.

Employees are entitled to a severance payment if they are over 50 years old and with 20 or more years service. If there is no contractual severance payment, an amount equal to between two and eight months' salary will be awarded by the court. However, the employer’s contributions to the employee’s pension fund over the entire period of service may be deducted from the severance payment. As a result, mandatory severance payments are rare.

Austrian law distinguishes between two severance pay models: one is applicable to all employment relationships established prior to 1 January 2003 (“old model”), and the other to employment agreements signed after that date (“new model”).

The old severance pay model requires the employer to pay a sum based on the length of service at the end of the employment relationship unless it is the employee who terminates the contract or if the employee is dismissed without notice for good cause (i.e. summary dismissal). If the employment relationship is terminated after three years employment, the employee is entitled to severance pay of two months salary. After 25 years, the employee is entitled to twelve months salary.

The new severance pay scheme requires the employer to pay a sum of 1.53% of every monthly salary into an employee severance fund (Betriebliche Vorsorgekasse). At the end of any given employment, the employee may then either request disbursement of the collected amount or leave it in the fund for further investment.

1.11 Non-competition clauses

Non-competition clauses are enforceable in Monaco provided they are appropriately restricted.

A non-competition clause must comply with five cumulative conditions:

  • it must be essential to protect the employer’s legitimate interests;
  • it must be limited to a specific time period;
  • it must be limited to a geographical area;
  • it must take the characteristics of the employee’s job into account; and
  • most importantly, it must provide for a financial counterpart.

Independent consideration is required for a non-competition clause.

The parties to an employment agreement may agree on post-termination restrictive covenants prohibiting competitive activity by the former employee. Such covenants are subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including the following:

  1. A post-termination restriction on competition is only valid and enforceable if it is limited to a specific activity, a reasonable geographic area, and a reasonable period of time (i.e. maximum three years, unless there are exceptional reasons for a longer period).
  2. In addition, a non-competition restriction is only enforceable in those cases where the employee has had access to the employer’s customers or to manufacturing or business secrets during the term of the employment, and the use of such knowledge could significantly damage the employer.
  3. The non-competition restriction has to be agreed upon in writing.
  4. The restriction does not apply if the employer terminates the employment relationship without the employee having given him good cause to do so, or if the employee terminates it for good cause attributable to the employer.
  5. Where an employee infringing the restriction is liable to pay a contractual penalty, the employee may exempt himself from the prohibition by paying the penalty. however, he remains liable in damages for any further damage. Only where expressly agreed upon in writing, the employer may insist that the employee continue to observe the non-competition restriction in addition to seeking the agreed contractual penalty and any further damages.

Non-competition clauses are only valid insofar as they last for no more than one year after the termination of employment, are restricted to the employer’s line of business and if the employee’s monthly income is above a certain threshold at the end of the employment relationship (e.g. for 2020, EUR 3,580 for contracts concluded after 29 December 2015). Also, contractual penalties are limited by law to six net monthly remunerations (without taking into account the 13th and 14th annual salary). If the parties agree to such a contractual penalty, the right to observe the non-competition clause or the compensation of any further damage is excluded.

A non-competition clause may not cause undue hardship to the employee’s career when weighed against the employer’s justified business interests.

Judges may limit the scope of a clause, or the contractual penalty to be paid when violating the law. Non-competition clauses are generally rendered void when the employer carries out the dismissals.

1.12 Miscellaneous

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

2. Dismissal of managing directors

In general, the managing director is an employee of the company. In certain situations, and subject to the prohibition of circumventing employment law, the managing director might be a self-employed person who has entered into a service agreement with the company.

The following comments relate to situations whereby the managing director is an employee of the company.

2.1 Reasons for dismissal

A company may generally revoke the appointment of the managing director without cause, unless stated otherwise in the by-laws of the company or the resolution of appointment. This is particularly the case for limited companies (‘SA‘). However, a just cause is legally required in limited liability companies (‘SARL’) when revoking a managing director who is also a shareholder of the company. In any event, revocation must follow mandatory steps to be declared valid.

Notice may be given without providing any reason (‘Kündigungsfreiheit’).

Both the employer and the managing director may end the employment relationship without providing reason or cause.

However, a dismissal must not be abusive (wrongful or unlawful dismissal). Subject to certain exceptions, such a notice is unlawful where issued in particular:

  • due to an inherent personal quality of the other party (skin colour, nationality, sexuality); or
  • because the other party exercises a constitutional right; or
  • solely in order to prevent claims under the employment relationship from accruing to the other party; or
  • because the other party asserts claims under the employment relationship in good faith; or
  • because the other party is performing military service or a non-voluntary legal obligation; or
  • in the context of mass redundancies by the employer if the consultation process is not observed.

In any of the above circumstances, the notice remains valid, but the party abusively giving notice may be obliged by the court to pay an indemnity of up to six months’ salary.

The employer may not terminate the employment relationship during the following periods, and notice given during these periods is void:

  • while the other party is performing Swiss compulsory military service, and during the four weeks preceding and following the service if the service lasts for more than 11 days; or
  • while the managing director, through no fault of his own, is (partially) prevented from working due to illness or accident, for up to 30 days in the first year of service, 90 days in the second to fifth years of service, or 180 days thereafter; or
  • during the pregnancy of a managing director, and for 16 weeks following the birth.

A company may revoke the appointment or terminate the service contract without cause, but must do so in compliance with applicable notice periods and termination dates.

2.2 Form

A resolution is taken by the shareholders and / or board of directors, depending on the form of the company and the internal organisation of the management. The managing director must be given the opportunity to explain himself or herself and the revocation must not be made vexatiously.

There is no specific requirement. Notice of termination may be given verbally or by other means. For evidentiary purposes, it is strongly recommended that any notice be issued in writing.

The provisions set forth by Swiss Company Law must also be taken into account for managing directors. For example, in a company limited by shares (‘Aktiengesellschaft’), the appointment and dismissal of persons entrusted with managing and representing the company is part of the non-transferable and inalienable duties of the board of directors.

A valid shareholder’s resolution is required on revocation of appointment as managing director and on termination of the service contract. A managing director has only to be notified in writing if so agreed in the service contract.

2.3 Notice period

No notice period, except where one is provided by the by-laws of the company or in the resolution of appointment of the managing director.

The statutory notice periods include: one month in the first year of service; two months between the second and ninth year of service; and three months thereafter.

The notice period may vary depending on the written individual or collective employment contract. often employers and managing directors agree on longer notice periods in their employment agreements than the default rule foreseen by law. The notice period must be the same for both parties. 

The parties may agree on a probationary period of up to three months with a notice period of seven days.

Revocation of appointment: possible without notice.

Termination of the service contract: Austrian law does provide statutory minimum notice periods and dates, and rarely does collective agreements and their notice periods and termination dates apply unless a more favourable contractual agreement exists. Managing directors generally have fixed-term contracts or long contractual notice periods.

2.4 Involvement of works council

No involvement.

Except for mass dismissals, there is no statutory requirement to involve a works council.

No involvement.

2.5 Involvement of a union

No involvement.

No involvement.

No involvement.

2.6 Approval of state authorities necessary

For limited liability companies (‘SARL’), appointment of a new director is subject to government approval. For all companies, the change of director must be registered in the Monaco Companies Register.

Not necessary.

Not required.

2.7 Collective redundancies

Not applicable.

The statutory provisions regarding mass dismissals apply where the employer – within a time period of 30 days – gives notice for reasons unrelated to an individual employee (including a managing director) and affecting (numbers include employees and managing directors):

  1. at least ten employees at a business normally employing between 21 and 99 employees; or
  2. at least 10% of the employees at a business normally employing between 100 and 300 employees; or
  3. at least 30 employees at a business normally employing more than 300 employees.

The provisions governing mass redundancies do not apply in the event business operations have ceased by court order or mass redundancies have occurred due to bankruptcy or a composition agreement with assignment of assets.

Prior to giving notice, the employer must consult the employee’s representative body or the employees, and at the same time notify the cantonal labour office in writing of the planned mass dismissal. These bodies have consultation rights only. Neither the employees nor the cantonal office can block a mass dismissal.

The employer is obliged to enter into social-plan negotiations if it (i) usually employs at least 250 employees (including managing directors) and (ii) intends to terminate at least 30 employees (including managing directors) within 30 days for reasons that are unrelated to an individual employee. Notices given over a longer period but based on the same operational decision must be added together.

The employer negotiates:

  • with the employee associations that are party to the collective employment contract if a party to this collective employment contract;
  • with the organisation representing the employees; or
  • directly with the employees if they have no representative organisation.

An arbitral tribunal will establish a social plan by way of an arbitral award if such negotiations fail.

Not applicable.

2.8 Summary dismissals

Not applicable.

Both the employer and the managing director may terminate the employment relationship with immediate effect at any time for cause.

The requirements for a termination for cause are high. There must be a severe breach of contract and – except for very serious cases (e.g. theft) – a clear warning must be given, which is then ignored by the other party. The notice must be issued within two to three days of the party becoming aware of the serious breach allowing termination for cause.

A summary dismissal (‘Entlassung’) does not require observance of any particular notice periods, but must be issued without undue delay. Summary dismissals are possible for good reasons or serious breach of duty, as regulated by law. Disloyalty, untrustworthiness, or persistent refusal to carry out one’s contractually agreed duties are typical reasons for a summary dismissal.

2.9 Consequences if requirements are not met

Damages may be claimed, mainly:

  • for the lack of a just cause, in the event that such reason is legally required to revoke a legal representative; or
  • if the revocation is notified under hurtful circumstances (e.g. is very sudden and unexpected, or is publicly announced before the director is informed), or if the managing director has not been granted a reasonable opportunity to make his / her point before the board’s / shareholders’ decision to revoke him / her (absence of due process). However, the managing director cannot be reinstated.

In case of ordinary dismissals:

  • in case of unfair dismissal, the notice remains valid, but the party abusively giving notice may be obliged by the court to pay an indemnity of up to six months salary.
  • The employer must not terminate the employment relationship during certain protected periods, as mentioned above under ‘Reasons for dismissal’. any notice given during these periods is void. If any of these circumstances apply after notice has been given, the notice remains valid but is extended accordingly.

Where a termination is made with immediate effect for cause but the requirements are not met (e.g. no serious breach, no or insufficient warning, late notice), the managing director is entitled to the salary for the period until his contract expires or could have been ordinarily terminated. In addition, the court may require the employer to pay an indemnity of up to six months salary.

In a case of mass dismissal, a notice of termination given without or before completion of the consultation process is deemed abusive. The notice of termination remains valid, but the employer is obliged to pay an indemnity to the managing director of a sum fixed by the court not exceeding two months salary.

If there is no valid shareholder resolution, the revocation of appointment as managing director will be invalid.

It is possible for the revocation to be valid and for the termination of the service contract to be invalid. If this is the case, the managing director is entitled to continued payment of salary and adequate employment.

2.10 Severance pay

Not applicable.

Managing directors are entitled to a severance payment if they are over 50 years old and with 20 or more years service. If there is no contractual severance payment, an amount equal to between two and eight months salary will be awarded by the court. However, the employer’s contributions to the managing director’s pension fund over the entire period of service may be deducted from the severance payment. As a result, mandatory severance payments are rare.

Austrian law distinguishes between two severance pay schemes: one is applicable to all employment relationships established prior to 1 January 2003 (‘old model’), and the other to employment agreements signed after that date (‘new model’).

 The old severance pay model requires the employer to pay a sum based on the employee’s length of service at the end of the employment relationship unless it is the employee who terminates the contract or if the employee is dismissed without notice for good cause (i.e. summary dismissal). If the employment relationship is terminated after three years employment, the employee is entitled to severance pay of two months salary. After 25 years, the employee is entitled to twelve months salary.

The new severance pay scheme requires the employer to pay a sum of 1.53 % of every monthly salary into an employee severance fund (‘Betriebliche Vorsorgekasse’). At the end of any given employment, the employee may then either request disbursement of the collected amount or to leave it in the fund for further investment.

2.11 Non-competition clauses

Non competition clauses are only valid insofar as they specify a restricted application in time and space. They also have to include financial compensation in order to compensate the director for the loss of revenue they cause him or her. If the clause does not include those elements, it is null and void. In that case, the director may still be held liable for unfair competition towards the company if it is demonstrated that the director resorted to fraudulent practices intended to disturb the company’s activity such as denigrating it or employing key members of its staff.

The parties to an employment agreement may agree on post-termination restrictive covenants prohibiting competitive activity by the former managing director. Such covenants are subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including the following.

  1. A post-termination restriction on competition is only valid and enforceable if it is limited to a specific activity, a reasonable geographic area, and a reasonable period of time (i.e. maximum three years, unless there are exceptional reasons for a longer period).
  2. In addition, a non-competition restriction is only enforceable in those cases where the managing director has had access to the employer’s customers or to manufacturing or business secrets during the term of the employment, and the use of such knowledge could significantly damage the employer.
  3. The non-competition restriction has to be agreed upon in writing.
  4. The restriction does not apply if the employer terminates the employment relationship without the managing director having given him any good cause to do so, or if the managing director terminates it for good cause attributable to the employer.
  5. Where a managing director infringing the restriction is liable to pay a contractual penalty, the managing director may exempt himself from the prohibition by paying the penalty. however, he remains liable for any further damage. Only where expressly agreed upon in writing, the employer may insist that the managing director continue to observe the non-competition restriction in addition to seeking the agreed contractual penalty and any further damages.

Non-competition clauses are only valid insofar as they are concluded for the duration of no more than one year after the termination of employment, are restricted to the employer’s line of business and if the employee’s monthly income is above a certain threshold at the end of the employment relationship (e.g. for 2020, EUR 3,580 for contracts concluded after the 29th December 2015) Also, contractual penalties are limited by law to an amount of six net monthly remunerations (without taking into account the 13th and 14th annual salary). If the parties agree on such a contractual penalty, the right to observe the non-competition clause or the compensation of any further damage is excluded.

A non-competition clause may not represent an undue hardship on the employee’s career when weighed against the employer’s justified business interests. Judges may limit the scope of a clause, or the contractual penalty to be paid when violating the law. Non-competition clauses are generally rendered void when employers are responsible for dismissals.

2.12 Miscellaneous

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.