Care homes in Russia

1. Which laws apply to opening care homes?

General legal framework in relation to nursing homes is established the Russian federal laws, i.e. the Law on Principles of Protection of Citizen’s Health and the Law on the Basics of Social Services for Citizens. 

The norms regulating operation of nursing homes are further elaborated by acts of various state authorities and officials, including the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection as well as the Chief State Sanitary Doctor.

2. Is the care home operator required to have a presence in the local jurisdiction?

Is the nursing home operator required to have a presence in the local jurisdiction?    Generally, local presence is required. 

However, there are some exceptions i.e., the Moscow International Medical Cluster (“MIMC”), where:

  1. foreign legal entities can operate through a branch (i.e. without establishing a subsidiary in the Russian Federation);
  2. licenses and other permits to practice medicine issued by OECD countries are recognised equally with permits issued in Russia;
  3. methods, technologies and standards (treatment protocols) in use in OECD countries are allowed to be used in the MIMC;
  4. medicine and equipment registered in the OECD may be used within the cluster without registration generally required under Russian law;
  5. foreign doctors may work without confirming their education: qualifying documents from OECD countries suffice; and
  6. sanitary and epidemiological rules and hygienic standards of the OECD countries are recognised as equal to those in the Russian Federation.

Nursing homes may be either state-owned or private but there are no specific requirements as to particular legal form.

State-owned nursing homes must be established in the form of a legal entity. A private investor may either establish a legal entity or obtain the status of an individual entrepreneur.

4. How are the governing bodies of the care home regulated?

There are no specific requirements for the governing bodies of nursing homes, unless medical services are provided. 

5. Is a concession or approval by any regulatory authority required to open a care home?

Generally, a private investor does not need to obtain any specific approvals or licences, save for general medical licence, if medical treatment services are to be provided by a nursing home.

6. Is a care home restricted in the performance of activities on the local market?

No restrictions on private nursing home operations are imposed, unless medical services are provided. Through, state-owned nursing homes must run business in accordance with their purpose prescribed by-laws.

7. Are there any restrictions on how care homes may use their profits?

Save for regulatory requirements applicable to state-owned nursing homes, there are no restrictions.

8. Does the government provide any type of subsidy?

There are various federal and regional subsidies granted to nursing home operators subject to them obtaining specific status, i.e., nursing home operator – participant of the MIMC can get: (i) state funding; (ii) lower taxes rates; (iii) lower rental rates etc. 

9. Is there a supervisory authority in relation to the activities of the care home?

For state-owned nursing homes – Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation; and
For private nursing homes – no specific supervisory authority. However, medical activities if provided are supervised by Federal Service for Surveillance in Healthcare.

10. What is the number of inhabitants?

144,373,535 (source: World Bank) 

11. What is the number of inhabitants older than 65 (in %)?

15,1% (source: World Bank)

12. What is the number of care homes?


13. Is there a waiting list?

There is no reliable statistic because Russia has both private and state-owned nursing homes and the waiting time varies greatly depending on type of nursing home.

Portrait of Artashes Oganov
Artashes Oganov