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Discover thought leadership and legal insights by our legal experts from across CMS. In our Expert Guides, written by CMS lawyers from across the jurisdictions where we operate, we provide you with in-depth legal research and insights that can be read both online and offline. You can also find Law-Now articles with focused legal analysis, commentary and insights to help you anticipate future challenges and much more.



Expertise
25/11/2022
En­ergy Sav­ings Guide
This CMS Guide is de­signed to shine a light on the wide vari­ety of en­ergy sav­ing laws in se­lec­ted CEE coun­tries by ex­plain­ing the most im­port­ant leg­al meas­ures and help­ing you to dis­cov­er where your op­por­tun­it­ies might lie. Polit­ic­al and leg­al frame­work En­ergy trans­form­a­tion re­quires build­ing up new en­ergy sources and that takes time. Sav­ing en­ergy, how­ever, is the quick­est and cheapest way to ad­dress the cur­rent en­ergy crisis, which is mainly caused by Rus­sia’s in­va­sion of Ukraine. Re­du­cing en­ergy con­sump­tion cuts house­holds’ and com­pan­ies’ high en­ergy bills.Build­ing on the “Fit for 55” pack­age of pro­pos­als and com­plet­ing the ac­tions on en­ergy se­cur­ity of sup­ply and stor­age, the European Com­mis­sion’s RE­PowerEU plan put for­ward a set of five ac­tions, the first of which is en­ergy sav­ing. Uni­on law sets forth man­dat­ory sav­ing goals for Mem­ber States but leaves them plenty of lee­way to choose between a vari­ety of meas­ures. Ap­plic­ant coun­tries and many oth­ers have passed en­ergy sav­ings laws and tar­gets too – of­fer­ing ad­di­tion­al flex­ib­il­ity.As a frame­work, the Fit for 55 pack­age and the European Cli­mate Law (REG 2021/1119) sets out a bind­ing, ir­re­vers­ible re­duc­tion of an­thro­po­gen­ic emis­sions. By 2030, 55% of the net GHG (green­house gas) emis­sions com­pared to 1990 must be saved. By 2050, the man­dat­ory net zero emis­sion goal must be achieved.Reg­u­la­tion 2022/1032 re­quires that mem­ber states fill their gas stor­age fa­cil­it­ies to at least 80-90% or that they store at least 35% of their av­er­age an­nu­al con­sump­tion in European stor­age fa­cil­it­ies. Re­du­cing con­sump­tion over the years re­duces the filling ob­lig­a­tion.Since Au­gust 2022, ob­lig­at­ory re­duc­tions in gas con­sump­tion ap­ply to EU mem­ber states (Reg­u­la­tion 2022/1032). The core in­nov­a­tion of this re­gime is the Uni­on alarm that can be triggered by the European Coun­cil if there is a ma­ter­i­al risk of grave gas sup­ply short­ages, ex­traordin­ary gas de­mand or a na­tion­al alarm pur­su­ant to Dir­ect­ive 2017/1938 in at least five Mem­ber States. Once a Uni­on alarm has been triggered and for as long as it re­mains in force, mem­ber states must re­duce their gas con­sump­tion by 15%. There is a par­tial ex­cep­tion if this would oth­er­wise cause an elec­tri­city crisis in the re­spect­ive mem­ber state. However, the steer­ing meas­ures to be taken and wheth­er cer­tain groups of gas con­sumers are gran­ted more fa­vour­able con­di­tions re­main at the mem­ber state’s dis­cre­tion. Re­gard­ing elec­tri­city, Reg­u­la­tion 2022/1854 on an emer­gency in­ter­ven­tion to ad­dress high en­ergy prices aims to re­duce elec­tri­city con­sump­tion by 10% and ease the pres­sure on elec­tri­city prices through rev­en­ue caps. Again, Mem­ber States are free to choose the ap­pro­pri­ate meas­ures to re­duce gross elec­tri­city con­sump­tion and meet the 10% tar­get.Ad­di­tion­al rules ap­ply to the fuel con­sump­tion of trucks or the en­ergy con­sump­tion of dis­trict heat­ing/cool­ing. The CMS Guide The res­ult of these reg­u­la­tions con­cern­ing en­ergy sav­ing has been the in­tro­duc­tion of a wide vari­ety of en­ergy sav­ing laws in in­di­vidu­al states; and many more meas­ures are still to come. This CMS Guide is de­signed to shine a light on these reg­u­la­tions by ex­plain­ing the most im­port­ant leg­al meas­ures and help­ing you to dis­cov­er where your op­por­tun­it­ies might lie. For each jur­is­dic­tion, the guide is struc­tured in­to: (1) a coun­try over­view,  (2) na­tion­al re­lief meas­ures for high en­ergy prices,  (3) na­tion­al/re­gion­al/com­mun­al en­ergy sav­ings meas­ures, and  (4) en­ergy stor­age status and in­cent­ives.The fol­low­ing meas­ures have been chosen by the states rep­res­en­ted in this  guide:  sub­sidies to end-con­sumers (Aus­tria in gen­er­al for en­ergy prices; Croa­tia for gas con­sump­tion), price caps: elec­tri­city (Croa­tia for house­holds, un­der­tak­ings and cer­tain­pub­lic con­sumers; Ukraine for house­holds),re­duced VAT rate (Croa­tia, North Mace­do­nia), tax in­cent­ives to privately store gas (Ukraine); ex­emp­tion from steer­ing meas­ures for privately stor­ing gas (Aus­tria),sub­sidies to com­pensate for high en­ergy prices (Bul­garia and Slov­akia, in Slov­e­nia for en­ter­prises, in Türki­ye for ag­ri­cul­ture) and en­ergy sav­ing meas­ures: (Croa­tia for SMEs); the real­loc­a­tion of EU funds to sup­port en­ergy con­sumers (Slov­akia); sub­sidies for en­ergy stor­age solu­tions (Aus­tria, Bul­garia and Ukraine) or for heat pro­du­cers (Ukraine),en­ergy ef­fi­ciency meas­ures in­cl. di­git­al­isa­tion (Bul­garia),re­duced hours of elec­tri­city or heat­ing sup­ply (North Mace­do­nia) or of gas sup­ply (Slov­akia),re­duc­tion of en­ergy con­sump­tion by the pub­lic ad­min­is­tra­tion (Aus­tria, North Mace­do­nia, Slov­e­nia), an­dob­lig­a­tions on gas stor­age op­er­at­ors to feed gas in­to the grid (Aus­tria, Slov­akia) or to sup­ply heat pro­du­cers at pref­er­en­tial prices (Ukraine).re­wards for vol­un­tary re­duc­tion of gas and/or elec­tric en­ergy con­sump­tion (Slov­e­nia)educed per­mit­ting re­quire­ments for PV and wind plants (Türki­ye).
21/03/2022
So­cial as­pect of ESG - Lex­icon of most im­port­ant terms and phrases
Lex­icon of most im­port­ant terms and phrases with­in the So­cial as­pect of ESG
24/02/2022
Pro­spects for in­stall­a­tion and util­iz­a­tion of rooftop sol­ar photo­vol­ta­ics...
CMS Guide
08/10/2020
Guide to Re­struc­tur­ing in CEE and Aus­tria
Re­struc­tur­ings, es­pe­cially those in­volving mul­tiple jur­is­dic­tions, are in­vari­ably com­plex mat­ters. In this CMS Guide, our ex­perts an­swer sev­en im­port­ant prac­tic­al ques­tions to help you nav­ig­ate through...
28/07/2020
Law­yers on Whis­tleblower Pro­tec­tion and In­tern­al In­vest­ig­a­tions
In Oc­to­ber 2019, when the European Uni­on ap­proved the Whis­tleblower Pro­tec­tion Dir­ect­ive, many EU jur­is­dic­tions re-ex­amined their in­tern­al in­vest­ig­a­tions sys­tems. At the same time, an open dis­cus­sion...
28/07/2020
Guide on in­ter­na­tion­al data trans­fers – Draw­ing on the Schrems II Case
On 16 Ju­ly 2020, al­most five years after the Safe Har­bour Agree­ment between the European Uni­on and United States was ruled in­val­id, the Court of Justice of the European Uni­on de­livered a judg­ment on...
11/05/2020
AI in Life Sci­ences
Ar­ti­fi­cial in­tel­li­gence is not new: the term it­self was coined over 60 years ago. However, the con­ver­gence of data volume, pro­cessing power and tech­nic­al cap­ab­il­ity has con­vinced many that the AI era...
14/04/2020
CMS Guide to Real Es­tate Trans­ac­tion Costs and Taxes in Europe
Com­par­ing real es­tate in­vest­ment val­ues across Europe provides only part of the pic­ture. For a true com­par­is­on, the in­vestor will also take ac­count of trans­ac­tion costs and taxes, which can dif­fer widely...
29/01/2020
En­ergy Trans­ition: Evol­u­tion or Re­volu­tion?
The en­ergy trans­ition is upon us – Greta Thun­berg and Ex­tinc­tion Re­bel­lion con­tin­ue to gen­er­ate more head­lines than Green­peace and, in Europe at least, there is sig­ni­fic­ant so­ci­et­al pres­sure to move...
18/12/2019
In­ter­na­tion­al Dis­putes Di­gest - Winter Edi­tion 2019
Back to main page Wel­come to the winter edi­tion of our In­ter­na­tion­al Dis­putes Di­gest, a bi-an­nu­al pub­lic­a­tion fea­tur­ing ana­lys­is and com­ment­ary on the key trends cur­rently shap­ing the glob­al dis­pute res­ol­u­tion...
18/11/2019
CMS Pub­lic Pro­cure­ment Tool­box of Rem­ed­ies
Pub­lic pro­cure­ment is the largest single glob­al mar­ket­place, ac­count­ing for around one-fifth of world­wide GDP. In this in­creas­ingly in­ter­na­tion­al mar­ket­place, com­pan­ies need to have con­fid­ence that pub­lic...
18/11/2019
E-pub­lic pro­cure­ment
On 18 Oc­to­ber 2018 ob­lig­at­ory e-pro­cure­ment rules entered in­to force in many EU mem­ber states. The CMS Pub­lic Pro­cure­ment Group has the pleas­ure of shar­ing key in­form­a­tion re­gard­ing mul­tiple jur­is­dic­tions.   Pub­lic...