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Discover thought leadership and legal insights by our legal experts from across CMS. In our Expert Guides, written by CMS lawyers from across the jurisdictions where we operate, we provide you with in-depth legal research and insights that can be read both online and offline. You can also find Law-Now articles with focused legal analysis, commentary and insights to help you anticipate future challenges and much more.



Media type
Expertise
25/11/2022
Meet the Law - DGEG’s no­tice on pro­jects clas­si­fied in the Terms of Ref­er­ence...
DGEG’s no­tice on pro­jects clas­si­fied in the Terms of Ref­er­ence with pos­it­ive en­vir­on­ment­al im­pact state­ment   De­cree-Law 72/2022, of Oc­to­ber 19, grants high pri­or­ity to pro­jects clas­si­fied un­der the...
22/11/2022
Meal al­low­ance for Pub­lic Ad­min­is­tra­tion em­ploy­ees – Or­din­ance no. 280/2022,...
Today, Novem­ber 18, 2022, was pub­lished the up­date of the daily meal al­low­ance for Pub­lic Ad­min­is­tra­tion em­ploy­ees.The daily meal al­low­ance, which was pre­vi­ously EUR 4.77 (four euros and sev­enty-sev­en...
21/10/2022
Meet the Law - The Di­git­al Mar­kets Act: Key points to note
The Di­git­al Mar­kets Act: Key points to noteReg­u­la­tion (EU) 2022/1925 of the European Par­lia­ment and of the Coun­cil of 14 Septem­ber 2022 on con­test­able and fair mar­kets in the di­git­al sec­tor (Di­git­al Mar­kets...
29/09/2022
Boom & Gloom? CMS European M&A Out­look 2023
We are pleased to share with you the 2023 edi­tion of the European M&A Out­look pub­lished by CMS in as­so­ci­ation with Mer­ger­mar­ket.
28/09/2022
CMS Green Globe
Stay in­formed about the latest sus­tain­ab­il­ity claims trends and de­vel­op­ments CMS Green Globe is an in­ter­act­ive plat­form that al­lows busi­nesses and cli­ents to stay aware and duly in­formed about all the main rap­idly chan­ging trends and de­vel­op­ments re­lated to sus­tain­ab­il­ity claims across the world.Here you will find in­form­a­tion on reg­u­la­tion and de­vel­op­ments you need to know when ad­vert­ising and mar­ket­ing your busi­ness or product by us­ing sus­tain­ab­il­ity claims as well as our key ex­perts to sup­port you in nav­ig­at­ing the world of such claims.CMS Green Globe helps you to avoid gre­en­wash­ing your con­sumer in your jur­is­dic­tion as well as across the globe. Dis­cov­er CMS Green Globe Best ex­plored on desktop
28/06/2022
Tech­no­logy Trans­form­a­tion: Man­aging Risks in a Chan­ging Land­scape
Chan­ging tech, chan­ging risks
01/06/2022
CMS Next
What’s next? In a world of ever-ac­cel­er­at­ing change, stay­ing ahead of the curve and know­ing what’s next for your busi­ness or sec­tor is es­sen­tial.At CMS, we see ourselves not only as your leg­al ad­visers but also as your busi­ness part­ners. We work to­geth­er with you to not only re­solve cur­rent is­sues but to an­ti­cip­ate fu­ture chal­lenges and in­nov­ate to meet them.With our latest pub­lic­a­tion, CMS Next, our ex­perts will reg­u­larly of­fer you in­sights in­to and fresh per­spect­ives on a range of is­sues that busi­nesses have to deal with – from ESG agen­das to re­struc­tur­ing after the pan­dem­ic or fa­cing the di­git­al trans­form­a­tion. We will also share with you more about the work that we are do­ing for our cli­ents, help­ing them in­nov­ate, grow and mit­ig­ate risk.To be able to provide you with the best sup­port, we im­merse ourselves in your world to un­der­stand your leg­al needs and chal­lenges. However, it is equally im­port­ant that you know who we are and how we can work with you. So, we in­vite you to meet our ex­perts and catch a glimpse of what is hap­pen­ing in­side CMS.En­joy read­ing this pub­lic­a­tion, which we will up­date reg­u­larly with new con­tent.CMS Ex­ec­ut­ive Team
31/05/2022
GDPR En­force­ment Track­er Re­port
What a year for GDPR en­force­ment: 2021/2022 saw vari­ous land­mark cases in­clud­ing: a new re­cord fine of EUR 743 mil­lion; the total amount of all fines since May 2018 ex­ceed­ing the EUR 1 bil­lion mark in sum­mer 2021; and the total num­ber of cases passing 1,000 in early 2022. Land­mark cases were widely re­por­ted, ob­vi­ously draw­ing a lot of pub­lic at­ten­tion and in­creas­ing over­all aware­ness for data pro­tec­tion law. However, there is a GDPR en­force­ment real­ity bey­ond re­cord fines and it may be worth tak­ing a closer look: fo­cus­sing solely on severe fines could lead to fear and even re­luct­ance or ig­nor­ance on com­pli­ance is­sues.We still be­lieve that facts are bet­ter than fear.Our con­tinu­ously up­dated list of pub­licly known GDPR fines in the GDPR En­force­ment Track­er is our 24/7 rem­edy against fear: in con­trast, the an­nu­al GDPR En­force­ment Track­er Re­port (“ET Re­port”) is our deep dive ap­proach and per­mits great­er in­sight in­to the world of GDPR fines.
18/05/2022
On-site power solu­tions
A guide for large en­ergy users Across Europe there is a clear and con­sist­ent trend for large scale com­mer­cial and in­dus­tri­al users of elec­tri­city ad­opt­ing on-site power solu­tions. This is the res­ult of a range of factors, in­clud­ing:re­new­able on-site gen­er­a­tion be­ing one of the most clear-cut ways to help “green” a site’s elec­tri­city sup­ply and help the com­mer­cial/in­dus­tri­al user achieve their cli­mate change tar­gets;on-site power solu­tions hav­ing the abil­ity to provide re­si­li­ence of elec­tri­city sup­ply dur­ing times of sys­tem out­age or con­straint;avoid­ance of the net­work and policy charges typ­ic­ally as­so­ci­ated with elec­tri­city taken from the grid; an­dthe com­mer­cial op­por­tun­it­ies from lever­aging flex­ible on-site power solu­tions to re­duce con­sump­tion from the grid and/or to ex­port elec­tri­city onto the grid.However, while such op­por­tun­it­ies mean that on-site power solu­tions are of­ten an at­tract­ive op­tion, on-site pro­jects will gen­er­ally come with a com­plex ar­ray of leg­al op­tions and con­sid­er­a­tions. These range from:the fun­da­ment­al point that such pro­jects in­her­ently in­volve par­ti­cip­a­tion in a typ­ic­ally heav­ily-reg­u­lated arena (and of­ten the back­drop of a set of reg­u­la­tions rap­idly evolving to keep pace with the sec­tor), toa range of pro­ject/agree­ment struc­tures and parties (without a “cook­ie cut­ter” ap­proach) in­volved in pro­ject own­er­ship, op­er­a­tion and elec­tri­city sale and pur­chase, with sig­ni­fic­ant co-de­pend­ence between such parties, toa gov­ern­ment policy con­text that (while at face value of­ten pro-green) is of­ten in­creas­ingly con­cerned about grid and policy charges be­ing avoided through these types of pro­ject and wishes to see all mar­ket par­ti­cipants pay­ing a per­ceived fair share of such costs. In this guide we provide an over­view of these chal­lenges and op­por­tun­it­ies in Europe, with a view to as­sist­ing you in re­view­ing, up­front, the key is­sues of­ten as­so­ci­ated with on-site power solu­tions of this nature. 
24/03/2022
CMS European M&A Study 2022
The CMS Cor­por­ate/M&A Group is pleased to launch the four­teenth edi­tion of the European M&A Study
10/01/2022
Tech­no­logy: a uni­fy­ing force
Com­pan­ies of­ten talk about the scourge of the silo, the farm­ing stor­age meta­phor that has come to rep­res­ent teams or de­part­ments that op­er­ate on their own. However, with tech­no­logy trans­form­ing vir­tu­ally every in­dustry on the plan­et, col­lab­or­a­tion across sec­tors has be­come es­sen­tial. Ad­di­tion­ally, the COV­ID-19 crisis has high­lighted the cru­cial role tech­no­logy, spe­cific­ally con­nectiv­ity, plays as the back­bone of our busi­ness world across all sec­tors, and once COV­ID-19 is brought un­der con­trol or even erad­ic­ated, it will prove es­sen­tial for so­cial and eco­nom­ic prosper­ity. For­ging links in di­git­al in­fra­struc­ture pro­jects Jonath­an Dames, a part­ner at CMS in Lon­don, says that his team’s prac­tice tra­di­tion­ally centred on so­cial and eco­nom­ic in­fra­struc­ture and en­ergy fin­ance, but is in­creas­ingly shift­ing to­wards di­git­al in­fra­struc­ture pro­jects, in­clud­ing fibre net­works and data centres.He says that these kinds of pro­jects re­quire close col­lab­or­a­tion between tra­di­tion­al pro­jects and pro­ject fin­ance law­yers and their col­leagues in Tech­no­logy, Me­dia & Com­mu­nic­a­tions (TMC), “We al­ways had cros­sov­er, and en­joyed great col­lab­or­a­tion with both the In­fra­struc­ture & Pro­jects and En­ergy Sec­tor Groups, for ex­ample, but now we are work­ing with the TMC Sec­tor Group much more closely be­cause we are fa­cing reg­u­lat­ory is­sues and re­gimes that we have nev­er faced be­fore such as Code Powers, the re­quire­ments of the Com­mu­nic­a­tions Act and re­lated le­gis­la­tion.“CMS has ex­tens­ive in­fra­struc­ture, en­ergy and tele­coms ex­pert­ise and is able to bring it all to­geth­er to cre­ate the skill set re­quired to de­liv­er long-term pro­ject fin­an­cing to tech­no­logy-based in­fra­struc­ture pro­jects.”Ad­di­tion­ally, the fund­ing of di­git­al in­fra­struc­ture pro­jects, such as the 10,000km El­laLink sub­sea cable between Brazil and Por­tugal, de­mands more com­plic­ated fin­an­cing struc­tures to cov­er the re­lated risks and cre­ate the op­tim­al cap­it­al stack to get the best all-in pri­cing. This has in­volved us­ing mezzan­ine fin­ance and vendor fin­an­cing for con­struc­tion, with a view to at­tract­ing cheap­er op­er­a­tion­al peri­od fin­an­cing in the me­di­um term. A sub­sea cable, cross­ing in­ter­na­tion­al wa­ters and land­ing in mul­tiple leg­al jur­is­dic­tions, is not, un­der­stand­ably, ex­posed to the same po­ten­tial threats and per­ils as a hos­pit­al or a con­ven­tion­al power sta­tion or a wind farm on a single site. So, not all the usu­al rules, mar­ket norms, leg­al con­structs and stand­ard mit­ig­ants ne­ces­sar­ily fit for a fin­an­cing of this type of as­set. Rise of the ma­chines The CMS In­tel­lec­tu­al Prop­erty (IP) Group has un­sur­pris­ingly been at the fore­front of tech­no­lo­gic­al in­nov­a­tion, sup­port­ing cli­ents in the iden­ti­fic­a­tion, pro­tec­tion and com­mer­cial­isa­tion of their IP as­sets. Tom Scourfield, Co-Head of the group, is based in Lon­don and Warsaw, two cit­ies well-known for their tech­no­logy in­cub­a­tion. He ob­serves, “We are not only see­ing an in­crease in the use of tech­no­logy in col­lab­or­a­tion, but much more fre­quently, col­lab­or­a­tion with tech­no­logy it­self.”Ar­ti­fi­cial In­tel­li­gence (AI) is a grow­ing area of fo­cus. Pat­ent ap­plic­a­tions for AI tech­no­lo­gies have in­creased by 170,000 since 2013, ac­cord­ing to a re­cent re­port by the World In­tel­lec­tu­al Prop­erty Of­fice (WIPO). In the field of AI pat­ents, there is cur­rently a fas­cin­at­ing de­bate around the ques­tion of pat­entab­il­ity of in­ven­tions cre­ated by AI ma­chines them­selves. Ac­cord­ing to Tom Scourfield, “Bey­ond pat­ents, we are also see­ing an in­creased use of AI in de­tect­ing and mon­it­or­ing coun­ter­feits and oth­er on­line brand harms. AI is also be­ing used to sup­ple­ment and sup­port the ana­lys­is of sim­il­ar­it­ies between com­pet­ing brands, wheth­er in terms of brand clear­ance or in­fringe­ment scen­ari­os.”Whatever de­vel­op­ments AI and oth­er in­nov­a­tion may bring, he thinks that one thing is cer­tain, “As IP law­yers, we al­ways have to be for­ward-think­ing, look­ing to pro­tect and se­cure com­pet­it­ive ad­vant­ages for our cli­ents in mar­kets and op­por­tun­it­ies that are not even fully es­tab­lished yet.” Pi­on­eer­ing new products Lon­don Funds part­ner Chris­toph­er Luck sees a real ap­pet­ite for new types of as­sets from the funds com­munity. He says that di­git­al tech­no­lo­gies are trans­form­ing the back-of­fices of as­set man­agers and are im­prov­ing the cus­tom­er ex­per­i­ence. Fund man­agers are be­com­ing bet­ter at stor­ing and har­ness­ing data, us­ing block­chain tech­no­lo­gies and plat­forms to make on­board­ing of know your cus­tom­er (KYC) in­form­a­tion and data pro­tec­tion a more stream­lined pro­cess. The use of smart con­tracts is also be­com­ing more pre­val­ent. Chris­toph­er Luck notes that the ad­vent of token­isa­tion, the pro­cess of con­vert­ing real as­sets in­to di­git­al rep­res­ent­a­tions (tokens) on a block­chain, has opened up the in­vest­ment mar­ket to a broad­er range of in­sti­tu­tion­al and re­tail in­vestors. “By demo­crat­ising or cre­at­ing more op­por­tun­it­ies for in­vestors, this is provid­ing ad­di­tion­al li­quid­ity in­to a num­ber of sec­tors, most not­ably real es­tate.” He says, “We are see­ing tokens at their most ad­vanced in the United States and Asia, and grow­ing in the UK and Europe.”  Un­der­stand­ing new en­vir­on­ments  In oth­er more tra­di­tion­al sec­tors, law­yers are in­creas­ingly be­ing ex­pec­ted to provide ad­vice on how to deal with the chal­lenges and op­por­tun­it­ies that tech­no­logy provides.Mark Ziek­man, Co-Head of the CMS Con­sumer Products Group, says, “In the con­sumer goods sec­tor, block­chain is mak­ing an im­pact, provid­ing the sup­ply chain and cus­tom­ers with a great­er de­gree of con­fid­ence in the proven­ance of a product and wheth­er it meets key sus­tain­ab­il­ity cri­ter­ia.”Cus­tom­ers, par­tic­u­larly mil­len­ni­als, are in­creas­ingly de­mand­ing in­form­a­tion around trace­ab­il­ity and audit­ab­il­ity to have con­fid­ence in FM­CG com­pan­ies, lo­gist­ics com­pan­ies and re­tail­ers.Fur­ther­more, Mark Ziek­man be­lieves that tech­no­logy in gen­er­al has played a pivotal role in ad­dress­ing wide­spread busi­ness dis­rup­tion caused by COV­ID-19, en­abling com­pan­ies to trans­form their busi­ness mod­els. Good ex­amples are res­taur­ants which al­most in­stant­an­eously changed their busi­ness mod­el to provide takeaways and food de­liv­er­ies. Shops shif­ted their fo­cus to selling on­line. These changes will not dis­ap­pear in the af­ter­math of the COV­ID-19 pan­dem­ic. Shift­ing reg­u­lat­ory land­scapes Reg­u­lat­ors con­tin­ue to face the on­go­ing chal­lenge of keep­ing pace with in­nov­a­tion and the new mar­ket dy­nam­ics it cre­ates. ESG factors have come to the fore in the minds of reg­u­lat­ors as well and this think­ing is only go­ing to in­tensi­fy. Cristina Reich­mann, a Bucharest based part­ner in the CMS Bank­ing & Fin­ance Group, says that reg­u­lat­ors are al­ways hav­ing to re­spond to new eco­nom­ic mod­els and pub­lic sen­ti­ments. She has seen fast dis­rup­tion in the bank­ing sec­tor CEE, “Ro­mania, for ex­ample, has a his­tory of in­nov­a­tion, pre­vi­ously emer­ging as a ma­jor in­ter­na­tion­al out­sourcing hub and then be­com­ing a fintech centre with a num­ber of uni­corns.” She points to agile bank­ing and fintech, which are provid­ing great­er ac­cess and a broad­er suite of ser­vices to cus­tom­ers, and with this comes reg­u­lat­ory chal­lenges. She says, “There are a lot of com­pli­ance as­pects to be met and solved.”
03/11/2021
Hey, Copy­right Dir­ect­ive
A video series to ex­plain copy­right rules re­vamped