1. Introduction
    1. Political and administrative structure
    2. Legal environment
  2. Common forms of business structures for foreign investors
    1. Main types of structure
    2. Registration, liquidation and reorganisation of business structures
    3. Shareholders’ and participants’ agreements
    4. Strategic industries
  3. Anti-monopoly issues
    1. General legal and regulatory framework
    2. Scope of application of the Competition Law
    3. Anti-competitive practices and restriction of competition
    4. Liability
  4. Tax system
    1. General approach
    2. Corporate taxation
    3. Incentives
    4. Special tax regimes
    5. Taxation of individuals
    6. Double taxation treaties
  5. Customs regulations
    1. General approach
    2. Trade between EEU and non-EEU countries
    3. Mutual trade between the EEU members
  6. Currency control
    1. Foreign currency transactions
    2. Consequences of breach/Penalties
  7. Lending in Russia
    1. Lending documents and governing law
    2. Jurisdiction
    3. International finance transactions and repatriation requirements
    4. Security interests
    5. Recognition of security trusts
    6. Syndicated loans
    7. Enforcement
    8. Suretyships and guarantees
    9. Bankruptcy considerations
    10. Other lending related issues
  8. Employment and migration
    1. Formalising the employment relationship
    2. Managing employment relationships
    3. Terminating an employment agreement
    4. Specifics of employing foreign nationals
  9. Personal data protection
    1. General approach
    2. Scope of the Data Protection Law
    3. Liability
    4. Right to be forgotten
  10. Intellectual property
    1. General approach
    2. Contractual aspects of intellectual property rights
    3. Rights over the results of intellectual activity
    4. Company names, trade names, trademarks and appellations of origin
    5. Intellectual property rights infringements
    6. IP Court
  11. Advertising issues
    1. General approach
    2. Scope of application of the Advertising Law
    3. Violations of the Advertising Law
    4. Liability
  12. Anti-corruption and compliance
    1. General approach
    2. Legal framework
    3. Compliance requirements for companies
    4. Concept of corruption in Russian law
    5. Possible targets of bribery
    6. Liability and penalties for corruption
    7. Example of sector-specific anti-corruption measures
  13. Real estate and construction
    1. Rights to real estate
    2. Real estate transactions
    3. Resolution of real estate disputes
    4. Planning and construction issues
  14. Corporate bankruptcy
    1. Insolvency criteria
    2. Stages of bankruptcy proceedings
  15. Import substitution and production localisation in Russia
    1. Measures affecting goods importation and current import substitution legislation
    2. Localisation incentives
    3. Sector-specific impact of import restrictions and localisation requirements
  16. Banking sector
    1. Legislative and regulatory framework
    2. Licensing and operations
    3. Deposit insurance
    4. The anti-money laundering law
    5. Bank secrecy
    6. FATCA and CRS
  17. Environment, energy efficiency and renewables
    1. Environment
    2. Energy efficiency
    3. Renewables
  18. Infrastructure and public private partnerships
    1. General approach
    2. Key PPP legislation
    3. Russian PPP environment
    4. Financing
    5. Legal issues
    6. Prospects for infrastructure projects
  19. Oil & gas
    1. Legislative framework
    2. Ownership and licensing
    3. Restrictions on foreign investors
    4. Licences
    5. PSAs


General remarks

Individuals and legal entities may be subject to administrative and criminal liability for non-compliance with anti-monopoly legislation.

Liability may include:

  • mandatory directions issued by the FAS to cease a violation and/or transfer to the state budget all revenue received as a result of the violation of anti-monopoly legislation (under the Competition Law);
  • fixed fines or fines calculated on the basis of revenue (up to 15% of the revenue gained over the period of the violation of anti-monopoly legislation) and/or disqualification of company officials (under the Code on Administrative Offences); and
  • fines and/or disqualification of company officials and, for the more serious anti-monopoly violations, up to seven years’ imprisonment for company officials (under the Criminal Code).

Specific remarks

Prohibited agreements and leniency

As mentioned above, cartels and concerted actions which violate anti-monopoly regulations are strictly prohibited and may lead to severe sanctions being imposed.

However, the Code on Administrative Offences provides for a “leniency programme”, i.e. a limited opportunity for companies that have participated in illegal anti-competitive agreements or actions to avoid penalties (the “Leniency Programme”).

To obtain total immunity under the Leniency Programme, a participant to an anti-competitive agreement (cartel) must: (i) be the first to inform the FAS of the anti-competitive agreement (cartel)’s existence; (ii) submit sufficient information and/or documents to the FAS to allow an administrative violation to be identified; (iii) fully cooperate with the FAS throughout its investigation; and (iv) cease any involvement in the cartel or other infringement immediately. It is only possible to benefit from the Leniency Programme if the FAS is not aware of the reported infringement.

Collective applications for the Leniency Programme are not accepted.

It is also possible for the FAS to set the minimum amount of administrative fines against those who were the second or third to voluntarily report the conclusion of an anti-competitive agreement (cartel) to the competition authority.

"Evidently, the scope of application of the Competition Law is very broad. In practice, it may cover almost any agreement and may apply to any company directly or indirectly connected with the Russian market or Russia in general."

Key contacts

Maxim Boulba
Head of Competition & Public Procurement | Head of TMT