1. Introduction
    1. Political and administrative structure
    2. Legal environment
  2. Common forms of business structures for foreign investors
    1. Main types of structure
    2. Registration, liquidation and reorganisation of business structures
    3. Shareholders’ and participants’ agreements
    4. Strategic industries
  3. Anti-monopoly issues
    1. General legal and regulatory framework
    2. Scope of application of the Competition Law
    3. Anti-competitive practices and restriction of competition
    4. Liability
  4. Tax system
    1. General approach
    2. Corporate taxation
    3. Incentives
    4. Special tax regimes
    5. Taxation of individuals
    6. Double taxation treaties
  5. Customs regulations
    1. General approach
    2. Trade between EEU and non-EEU countries
    3. Mutual trade between the EEU members
  6. Currency control
    1. Foreign currency transactions
    2. Consequences of breach/Penalties
  7. Lending in Russia
    1. Lending documents and governing law
    2. Jurisdiction
    3. International finance transactions and repatriation requirements
    4. Security interests
    5. Recognition of security trusts
    6. Syndicated loans
    7. Enforcement
    8. Suretyships and guarantees
    9. Bankruptcy considerations
    10. Other lending related issues
  8. Employment and migration
    1. Formalising the employment relationship
    2. Managing employment relationships
    3. Terminating an employment agreement
    4. Specifics of employing foreign nationals
  9. Personal data protection
    1. General approach
    2. Scope of the Data Protection Law
    3. Liability
    4. Right to be forgotten
  10. Intellectual property
    1. General approach
    2. Contractual aspects of intellectual property rights
    3. Rights over the results of intellectual activity
    4. Company names, trade names, trademarks and appellations of origin
    5. Intellectual property rights infringements
    6. IP Court
  11. Advertising issues
    1. General approach
    2. Scope of application of the Advertising Law
    3. Violations of the Advertising Law
    4. Liability
  12. Anti-corruption and compliance
    1. General approach
    2. Legal framework
    3. Compliance requirements for companies
    4. Concept of corruption in Russian law
    5. Possible targets of bribery
    6. Liability and penalties for corruption
    7. Example of sector-specific anti-corruption measures
  13. Real estate and construction
    1. Rights to real estate
    2. Real estate transactions
    3. Resolution of real estate disputes
    4. Planning and construction issues
  14. Corporate bankruptcy
    1. Insolvency criteria
    2. Stages of bankruptcy proceedings
  15. Import substitution and production localisation in Russia
    1. Measures affecting goods importation and current import substitution legislation
    2. Localisation incentives
    3. Sector-specific impact of import restrictions and localisation requirements
  16. Banking sector
    1. Legislative and regulatory framework
    2. Licensing and operations
    3. Deposit insurance
    4. The anti-money laundering law
    5. Bank secrecy
    6. FATCA and CRS
  17. Environment, energy efficiency and renewables
    1. Environment
    2. Energy efficiency
    3. Renewables
  18. Infrastructure and public private partnerships
    1. General approach
    2. Key PPP legislation
    3. Russian PPP environment
    4. Financing
    5. Legal issues
    6. Prospects for infrastructure projects
  19. Oil & gas
    1. Legislative framework
    2. Ownership and licensing
    3. Restrictions on foreign investors
    4. Licences
    5. PSAs

Banking sector

The Russian banking industry is still characterised by a large number of credit institutions (836 as of 1 January 2020) and by a high level of concentration of capital.

In 2018-2019 the Central Bank of Russia (the “CBR”) continued its policy of reducing the number of credit institutions, aiming for their consolidation and the closer supervision of their activities in the current economic climate. Consequently, a noticeable number of banking licences were revoked in the last two years.

As of 1 January 2020, 60.3% of the banking sector’s total assets were held by the top five Russian banks1. State-owned banks2 continue to play a significant role in the stabilisation and development of the Russian banking sector.


[1] As of 1 January 2020, the top five Russian banks in terms of net assets are Sberbank (RUB 28.9bn, i.e. EUR 412.9m); VTB (RUB 14.3bn, i.e. EUR 204.3m); Gazprombank (RUB 6.5bn, i.e. EUR 92.9m); National Clearing Centre Bank (RUB 4bn, i.e. EUR 57.2m); and Alfa-Bank (RUB 3.8bn, i.e. EUR 54.3m); www.banki.ru/banks/ratings/ (all conversions are based on a notional rate of RUB 70 = EUR 1, as used for convenience throughout this guide).

[2] Such as Sberbank, VTB, Gazprombank, etc.

Key contacts

Contact
Baranov Konstantin
Konstantin Baranov
Partner
Head of Banking & Finance
Tchoubykina Elena
Elena Tchoubykina
Counsel
Banking & Finance

Bank secrecy

Similar to other jurisdictions, Russia has a set of rules for bank secrecy which are set out in the Banking Law.

Accordingly, a Russian licensed bank may disclose information about any of its customers (including the relevant customer’s operations) only to that customer, courts of general jurisdiction, commercial courts, certain governmental bodies and law enforcement agencies. In the event of unauthorised disclosure of any information so received, the respective authorities bear civil (compensation of damages), administrative and criminal liability under Russian law.

In practice, if a third party wishes to gain access to information in relation to the account balance of an account holder, the account holder must expressly authorise their account bank to release the relevant information. However, some banks take the more conservative view that such authorisation is not possible on the basis that it is not specifically provided for in the banking legislation.

Please note that Russian authorised banks are also subject to Russian data protection legislation (please see the Personal data protection chapter).


Key contacts

Baranov Konstantin
Konstantin Baranov
Partner
Head of Banking & Finance
Tchoubykina Elena
Elena Tchoubykina
Counsel
Banking & Finance