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Discover thought leadership and legal insights by our legal experts from across CMS. In our Expert Guides, written by CMS lawyers from across the jurisdictions where we operate, we provide you with in-depth legal research and insights that can be read both online and offline. You can also find Law-Now articles with focused legal analysis, commentary and insights to help you anticipate future challenges and much more.



Media type
Expertise
31/01/2023
In­sur­ance and ESG - chal­lenges and con­tra­dic­tions
Today, the com­plex set of cri­ter­ia and rules, some­times re­ferred to by the ac­ronym ESG or green fin­ance, per­meates eco­nom­ic and fin­an­cial life, and the in­sur­ance in­dustry is clearly not im­mune to its...
25/01/2023
CMS Green Globe | New coun­try ad­ded!
Stay in­formed about the latest sus­tain­ab­il­ity claims trends and de­vel­op­ments CMS Green Globe is an in­ter­act­ive plat­form that al­lows busi­nesses and cli­ents to stay aware and duly in­formed about all the main rap­idly chan­ging trends and de­vel­op­ments re­lated to sus­tain­ab­il­ity claims across the world.Here you will find in­form­a­tion on reg­u­la­tion and de­vel­op­ments you need to know when ad­vert­ising and mar­ket­ing your busi­ness or product by us­ing sus­tain­ab­il­ity claims as well as our key ex­perts to sup­port you in nav­ig­at­ing the world of such claims.CMS Green Globe helps you to avoid gre­en­wash­ing your con­sumer in your jur­is­dic­tion as well as across the globe. Dis­cov­er CMS Green Globe Best ex­plored on desktop
11/01/2023
Use of Out­sourced IT per­son­nel in Cent­ral and East­ern Europe
While Europe is the most im­pacted re­gion by the on­go­ing war in Ukraine, the IT ser­vice mar­kets in Cent­ral and East­ern Europe (CEE) are ex­pec­ted to con­tin­ue to grow by nearly 6% and 7% in 2022 and 2023...
22/11/2022
Glob­al Life Sci­ences & Health­care For­um 2022 – re­cord­ings & present­a­tions
Un­cer­tain times, an evolving leg­al frame­work: man­aging risks and en­sur­ing so­cial re­spons­ib­il­ity in the life sci­ences & health­care sec­tor The risks of AI in the fu­ture of life sci­ences came un­der the mi­cro­scope at a land­mark leg­al For­um in Septem­ber.Health­care is ra­cing ahead in ad­opt­ing new tech­no­lo­gies across drug dis­cov­ery, de­vel­op­ment, man­u­fac­tur­ing and sup­ply chain but ex­perts pre­dict a tail-whip of dis­putes and con­tract fric­tion.Di­git­al trans­form­a­tion has the po­ten­tial to im­prove every as­pect of health­care and the pharma in­dustry but it also im­pacts data pro­tec­tion, IT se­cur­ity, con­tract design, li­ab­il­ity and reg­u­la­tion.The an­nu­al CMS Glob­al Life Sci­ences and Health­care For­um brought to­geth­er high-level in­dustry and leg­al ex­perts to dis­cuss sec­tor in­tel­li­gence and best prac­tice as well as is­sues ran­ging from cy­ber breaches and crypto­cur­rency wrangles to fall-outs over trade secrets and in­tel­lec­tu­al prop­erty (IP).“AI of­fers amaz­ing op­por­tun­it­ies to ad­vance life sci­ences and ush­er in trans­form­at­ive medi­cine such as cell and gene ther­apy, im­proved dia­gnostics and ana­lyt­ics but it also comes with con­cerns as leg­al and con­trac­tu­al risks are still be­ing un­der­stood and eval­u­ated,” says Nick Beck­ett, Glob­al Co-Head of CMS Life Sci­ences & Health­care Sec­tor Group“Sci­ence and tech­no­logy are mov­ing for­ward very quickly but we are find­ing that the de­tail and strategy of what to do to mit­ig­ate risks or re­solve them is lag­ging be­hind. These are crit­ic­ally im­port­ant is­sues that com­pan­ies need to ad­dress and the For­um ex­amined the im­plic­a­tions and solu­tions.”AI is boom­ing and a re­cent re­port by ana­lysts Grand View Re­search fore­cast that the glob­al AI in health­care mar­ket will grow from its cur­rent value of $10.4 bil­lion at a com­pound an­nu­al growth rate (CAGR) of 38.4% from 2022 to 2030. AI is fast be­com­ing a sig­ni­fic­ant ele­ment of every as­pect of health­care and leg­al de­part­ments and busi­ness units are be­ing chal­lenged to re­spond.The For­um, which was held in Brus­sels and on­line on Thursday, Septem­ber 29, had a packed agenda cov­er­ing tech­no­logy trans­form­a­tion, En­vir­on­ment­al, Sus­tain­ab­il­ity and Gov­ernance, sup­ply chain dis­rup­tion, reg­u­lat­ory frame­works and the chan­ging com­mer­cial land­scape.The scale of chal­lenge was evid­enced in the re­cent CMS Tech­no­logy Trans­form­a­tion: Man­aging Risks in a Chan­ging Land­scape re­port which re­vealed that 56% of cor­por­ate coun­sel and risk man­agers ex­pect an in­crease in AI-re­lated dis­putes, while 50% be­lieve that the use of AI tech­no­lo­gies will lead to risks and dis­putes that can­not cur­rently be fore­seen.Dis­putes will be driv­en by is­sues arising from IP and trade secrets, the use of AI, smart con­tracts, crypto­cur­ren­cies and cloud ser­vices, they be­lieve.“Or­gan­isa­tions are likely to see new types of risks and dis­putes emerge from the use of new tech­no­lo­gies such as AI and crypto­cur­ren­cies. Many busi­nesses are play­ing catch-up in un­der­stand­ing the risks as­so­ci­ated with these new tech­no­lo­gies,” says Lee Gluyas, Part­ner, CMS. “Whilst no busi­ness can elim­in­ate risks com­pletely, those that think ahead, plan early and act­ively man­age risk will give them­selves a sub­stan­tial ad­vant­age.”Fea­tured key­note speak­ers from the United Na­tions Health and De­vel­op­ment Team, gen­er­al coun­sel from lead­ing pharma com­pan­ies, Bo­ston Con­sult­ing Group, fin­an­cial ser­vices mul­tina­tion­al Aon and CMS sec­tor spe­cial­ists.
22/11/2022
Life Sci­ences are reap­ing the re­ward of di­git­al ad­vances but IP and con­tract...
Di­git­al trans­form­a­tion in life sci­ences is cre­at­ing op­por­tun­it­ies to counter health­care’s most in­tract­able prob­lems from treat­ing rare dis­eases to ac­cel­er­at­ing dia­gnostics and re­du­cing treat­ment back­logs.But tech­no­lo­gic­al ad­vances are out­strip­ping le­gis­lat­ive and reg­u­lat­ory frame­works giv­ing rise to a land­scape strewn with is­sues over data, pri­vacy and IP, the re­cent CMS Glob­al Life Sci­ences & Health­care For­um 2022 heard.“Tech­no­logy change ob­vi­ously brings with it risks in im­ple­ment­a­tion and new uses of tech­no­logy and new reg­u­la­tion and le­gis­la­tion brings new risk,” Jeremy Mash, part­ner at CMS Lon­don, told del­eg­ates.AI is a po­tent force in life sci­ences with ma­chine learn­ing and pa­tient data open­ing up new op­por­tun­it­ies to re­volu­tion­ise health­care and re­lieve sys­tems bogged down by la­bor­i­ous pro­cesses and shrink­ing budgets.The ad­vances are wel­comed across life sci­ences and di­git­al has been en­shrined in most na­tion’s health sys­tem plan­ning but some fun­da­ment­al prin­ciples such as who owns or is re­spons­ible for pa­tient data, new routes to treat­ments and the con­sequences of mis­takes have yet to be fully tested.“There are situ­ations where you can see that evolving in­to risk and leg­al prob­lems,” ad­ded Jeremy. “There is in­creas­ing use of le­gis­la­tion in the space and there is con­cern about where it is go­ing to lead. There are a lot of data is­sues about quite what the ‘black box’ is do­ing and you can see people start­ing to raise con­cerns about how their data is be­ing used.“There is also a lot talk about who is li­able if that AI does not work. Is it the per­son who im­ple­men­ted it or the per­son de­signed it?”CMS ex­amined the emer­ging is­sues in its Tech­no­logy Trans­form­a­tion re­port, which sur­veyed 510 seni­or coun­sel and risk man­agers across sec­tors and dis­covered a range of pre­pared­ness and safe­guards.It iden­ti­fied that IP is­sues rep­res­ent 65% of ex­pec­ted fu­ture tech­no­logy dis­putes, ob­served Jane Hol­ly­wood, part­ner at CMS Lon­don and pat­ent at­tor­ney. She said the ex­ist­ing risk man­age­ment sys­tems for identi­fy­ing, ana­lys­ing, re­view­ing, mit­ig­at­ing and mon­it­or­ing IP risk may need stiff­en­ing.“It's one thing to have con­trac­tu­al ob­lig­a­tions and train­ing for your people gov­ern­ing how you pro­tect your IP and not mis­use third party IP,” she told the For­um, in Brus­sels. “But it's quite an­oth­er to en­sure that your pro­ced­ures re­main ad­equate while you're op­er­at­ing in a world of ma­chine learn­ing al­gorithms and AI fa­cil­it­ated de­cision mak­ing.”She ad­ded: “The IP sys­tem does not evolve as quickly as tech­no­logy ad­vances and there­fore we can have chal­lenges ob­tain­ing pro­tec­tion for new tech­no­lo­gies. We've seen this very much with AI and di­git­al health tech­no­lo­gies where pat­ent pro­tec­tion can be dif­fi­cult to get.”She said that identi­fy­ing own­er­ship and cap­tur­ing de­vel­op­ments in a fast-mov­ing sec­tor where col­lab­or­a­tion and joint ven­tures are com­mon can also gen­er­ate dis­putes.“Big Pharma is in­creas­ingly part­ner­ing with di­git­al health com­pan­ies for drug dis­cov­ery and pa­tient en­gage­ment and clin­ic­al tri­al auto­ma­tion and, again, there's a lack of clar­ity about who owns the data that's gen­er­ated from these part­ner­ships so this is also likely to lead to dis­putes in the fu­ture,” said Jane.To read the full sur­vey, vis­it Tech­no­logy Trans­form­a­tion re­port.
09/11/2022
The ESG chal­lenge is a drive to­wards in­nov­a­tion
This in­ter­view with Ag­nieszka Skoru­p­in­ska first ap­peared in the Fu­ture of Emer­ging Europe: Sus­tain­ab­il­ity Re­port 2022.  A copy of the full re­port is also avail­able to ac­cess here. The ESG chal­lenge is a drive to­wards in­nov­a­tion Due to a vari­ety of his­tor­ic­al factors, sus­tain­ab­il­ity is­sues have con­sti­tuted a sig­ni­fic­ant chal­lenge for the emer­ging Europe re­gion. After the fall of the Ber­lin wall, the situ­ation with re­spect to fore­most en­vir­on­ment­al and so­cial is­sues was dif­fi­cult. The fore­go­ing was es­pe­cially ap­par­ent with re­spect to en­vir­on­ment­al mat­ters as the pre­ser­va­tion of the en­vir­on­ment and its pos­sible im­pact on hu­man health was not a pri­or­ity for the rel­ev­ant au­thor­it­ies and busi­ness dur­ing the com­mun­ist peri­od. While there were many in­dus­tri­al plants in CEE at that time, their equip­ment was out­dated and they were nev­er ser­i­ously re­quired to cut down their en­vir­on­ment­al im­pact. 
09/11/2022
ESG and the en­ergy sec­tor
This art­icle first ap­peared in the Fu­ture of Emer­ging Europe: Sus­tain­ab­il­ity Re­port 2022.  A copy of the full re­port is also avail­able to ac­cess here.De­vel­op­ments in ESG is­sues in emer­ging Europe’s en­ergy sec­tor con­tin­ue apace. En­ergy gen­er­a­tion com­pan­ies, gov­ern­ments, loc­al au­thor­it­ies and con­sumers are all af­fected by the drive to­wards a fu­ture that is less re­li­ant on fossil fuels.
09/11/2022
ESG and the fu­ture of work
This art­icle first ap­peared in the Fu­ture of Emer­ging Europe: Sus­tain­ab­il­ity Re­port 2022. A copy of the full re­port is also avail­able to ac­cess here.ESG is­sues are hav­ing a grow­ing im­pact on how we all work. But what de­vel­op­ments are com­pan­ies im­ple­ment­ing in re­ac­tion to this dy­nam­ic en­vir­on­ment, and what changes might em­ploy­ees have to face in the fu­ture?
09/11/2022
ESG in emer­ging Europe hub
The fo­cus on ESG (en­vir­on­ment­al, so­cial and gov­ernance) in emer­ging Europe has in­creased not­ably fol­low­ing the EU tax­onomy com­ing in­to force at the be­gin­ning of 2022. EU-driv­en ini­ti­at­ives, in­clud­ing policies com­ing out of the European Green Deal (EGD) to fight cli­mate change have star­ted af­fect­ing the in­dustry, and with tight­en­ing reg­u­la­tion as well as re­port­ing and com­pli­ance ob­lig­a­tions, there is cer­tainly more to come. 
08/11/2022
Tech­no­logy Trans­form­a­tion – Me­dia
The me­dia sec­tor is known to be highly com­pet­it­ive, with that com­pet­i­tion driv­ing in­nov­a­tion. Older me­dia busi­nesses have had to grapple with dis­rupt­ive new entrants. And those new entrants are con­stantly work­ing to de­liv­er bet­ter and more en­ga­ging con­tent and user ex­per­i­ences to main­tain their ad­vant­age. Di­git­isa­tion has changed how me­dia com­pan­ies in­ter­act with their audi­ence in ways we could not have ima­gined just a few years ago, but this comes with risk.This re­port is a deep dive in­to the data first pro­duced for the re­port Tech­no­logy Trans­form­a­tion: Man­aging Risks in a Chan­ging Land­scape. This saw over 500 cor­por­ate coun­sel and risk man­agers sur­veyed from mul­tiple in­dus­tries across the world. Here we look in de­tail at the 75 re­spond­ents from the me­dia sec­tor, and their per­spect­ives on the risks as­so­ci­ated with busi­ness-crit­ic­al tech­no­lo­gies, in­clud­ing emer­ging tech­no­lo­gies. What did we find? Me­dia is a dy­nam­ic sec­tor and can be an early ad­op­ter of many nov­el tech­no­lo­gies as com­pan­ies push for com­pet­it­ive ad­vant­ages to cre­ate and sat­is­fy cus­tom­er de­mand. As we look to the fu­ture, the sec­tor does seem un­der­prepared in some areas, which is a po­ten­tial cause for con­cern.Down­load the Tech­no­logy Trans­form­a­tion me­dia sec­tor re­port now to read aboutThe prin­cip­al drivers in the ad­op­tion of busi­ness-crit­ic­al tech­no­logy in the me­dia sec­tor­Con­fid­ence in man­aging tech-re­lated risks among seni­or me­dia ex­ec­ut­ivesFu­ture threats from new tech­no­lo­gies like AI and block­chain­Which plans and pro­cesses me­dia com­pan­ies are put­ting in place to pro­tect tech in­fra­struc­ture­Cul­tur­al bar­ri­ers to man­aging tech risks in the me­dia sec­tor­Preferred ap­proaches to dis­pute res­ol­u­tion in the me­dia sec­tor
06/11/2022
Fa­cing the op­por­tun­it­ies and chal­lenges of a vi­brant life sci­ences sec­tor
Di­git­al ad­vances and in­nov­at­ive ther­apies are push­ing the bound­ar­ies of health and the leg­al world has to keep paceLife sci­ences are fizz­ing with in­genu­ity and in­nov­a­tion with re­volu­tion­ary gene and cell drug dis­cov­ery and di­git­al ad­vances push­ing the fron­ti­ers of glob­al health­care.But the trans­form­at­ive prom­ise is freighted with com­plex con­cerns over sus­tain­ab­il­ity, af­ford­ab­il­ity, di­git­al se­cur­ity, con­tracts and IP own­er­ship. The is­sues range from sci­entif­ic tech­nic­al­it­ies to ex­ist­en­tial and eth­ic­al ques­tions over Ar­ti­fi­cial In­tel­li­gence’s abil­ity to gen­er­ate ap­proaches free from hu­man hand.The chan­ging land­scape was brought in­to fo­cus at the CMS Glob­al Life Sci­ences and Health­care For­um 2022 where ex­perts high­lighted the chal­lenges and ex­plored guid­ing prin­ciples.The pan­el, chaired by CMS Lon­don part­ner Louise Boswell, heard that cur­rent eco­nom­ic pres­sures and geo-polit­ic­al shock­waves are ra­di­at­ing across busi­ness per­form­ance and sup­ply chains, which are cru­cial to com­mer­cial vi­ab­il­ity and the land­scape is be­ing fur­ther stressed by am­bi­tious goals to re­duce car­bon emis­sions.Laeti­tia Sz­a­ller, Gen­er­al Coun­sel & VP Busi­ness De­vel­op­ment at AM Pharma, told del­eg­ates that a new prag­mat­ism was needed when ne­go­ti­at­ing col­lab­or­a­tions with part­ner com­pan­ies and she em­phas­ised the need to cre­ate con­tracts with sup­pli­ers that are flex­ible enough to weath­er storms and pro­tect all parties from cur­rent and fu­ture pres­sures.“The real­ity is that you have to find a solu­tion,” she said. “It will come down to how do we share the risk and how do we share bur­den? Hav­ing your part­ner bleed out is not go­ing to be lead­ing to a happy end­ing.”The pan­dem­ic, the Rus­si­an in­va­sion of Ukraine have caused un­pre­ced­en­ted tur­bu­lence across sup­ply chains and Sz­a­ller ad­voc­ated for all stake­hold­ers to be in­volved in early stage dis­cus­sions to avoid the time and cost risk of chan­ging sup­ply chain part­ners be­cause of in­flex­ible agree­ments.The CMS Tech­no­logy Trans­form­a­tion: Man­aging Risks in a Chan­ging Land­scape re­port found that 56% of cor­por­ate coun­sel and risk man­agers sur­veyed were ex­pect­ing a rise in dis­putes in­volving AI over the next few years.The pan­el ses­sion also got valu­able in­sights in­to the com­plex­it­ies and dif­fi­culties of build­ing AI sys­tems in life sci­ences – the glob­al sec­tor is fore­cast to grow at 20% CAGR between 2022 and 2030 – from An­ita Prin­zie, Product Man­ager, Om­nia Tech­no­lo­gies Ma­chine Learn­ing.“We try to face the risks head on.” she com­men­ted. “We want to tap in­to the op­por­tun­it­ies to build valu­able di­git­al health apps that will sup­port much more per­son­al­ised ex­per­i­ences, which we all ac­tu­ally want.“There is more health data – just like we have in the re­tail sec­tor - but this data is very per­son­al. It's your per­son­al health data. So, when com­pan­ies ask us to help per­son­al­ise those health ex­per­i­ences, it is a yes but we have to look at the risks. We can­not jump for joy and just ap­ply whatever al­gorithm from the shelf.“It is very dif­fi­cult and is not only an AI prob­lem but an AI risk man­age­ment prob­lem.”She ad­ded that reg­u­la­tions over pri­vacy and data pro­tec­tion var­ied across coun­tries so the com­pany cre­ated core pro­grammes that can be amended for dif­fer­ent na­tions rather than con­struct new sys­tems for each coun­try.The pan­el, which in­cluded CMS part­ners Bri­an Sher and Tom De Cordi­er, dis­cussed a range of is­sues such as li­cens­ing agree­ments in a chan­ging en­vir­on­ment, in­clud­ing the freshly-min­ted sec­tor of col­lab­or­a­tions based on early stage in­nov­a­tion and re­search, ‘killer ac­quis­i­tions’, com­pet­i­tion law, reg­u­lat­ory com­plex­it­ies and IP rights.Nick Beck­ett, Glob­al Co-Head of CMS Life Sci­ences & Health­care Sec­tor Group, ob­served: “Ad­vances are com­ing thick and fast in life sci­ences so we need to make sure the leg­al sec­tor can re­spond pos­it­ively to en­sure that new tech­no­lo­gies and ther­apies get to the people that need them most.“Shar­ing sec­tor in­tel­li­gence and ex­per­i­ence is key to un­der­stand where fric­tion points arise and al­lows us to find solu­tions that em­power the sec­tor.“The en­tire CMS For­um was full of in­sights and know­ledge and we are com­mit­ted to util­ising best prac­tice and in­nov­at­ive ap­proaches to get the best for our life sci­ences and health­care cli­ents.”
03/11/2022
The leg­al sec­tor has a key role to play in glob­al sus­tain­ab­il­ity says United...
The United Na­tions has pledged to use its pur­chas­ing fire­power to ac­cel­er­ate sus­tain­ab­il­ity along the health­care sup­ply chan­nel and called on the leg­al sec­tor to sup­port its ef­forts.Law­yers are crit­ic­al to es­tab­lish­ing strong reg­u­lat­ory frame­works and provid­ing con­trac­tu­al guid­ance that would al­low green­er and more equit­able prac­tices to flour­ish, said a seni­or UN ex­ec­ut­ive.Ian Milimo, pro­ject man­ager for the United Na­tions De­vel­op­ment Pro­gramme’s re­gion­al hub for 128 na­tions, told the CMS Glob­al Life Sci­ences & Health­care For­um 2022, that the or­gan­isa­tion would use its $6 bil­lion of pur­chas­ing power to lever­age im­prove­ments in health­care.He used his key­note ad­dress to high­light that, if the health­care sec­tor were a coun­try it would be the fifth largest emit­ter of car­bon, while also prais­ing col­lab­or­a­tions with leg­al ex­perts that em­powered coun­tries, health­care pro­viders and sup­pli­ers to pur­sue car­bon zero am­bi­tions.“We need to strengthen our con­tracts for goods that we pro­cure for ser­vices.  We don't have that ex­pert­ise, you have that ex­pert­ise, and this is an open call for you to join us in mak­ing sure that we are cham­pi­on­ing sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment,” he  told the For­um of in­vited guests from leg­al, fin­an­cial and health­care sec­tors.“We need law­yers to sens­it­ise cit­izens on their rights and re­spons­ib­il­it­ies with re­gards to cli­mate. We need your sup­port, we need your ex­pert­ise, we need your tech­nic­al abil­ity to en­sure that gov­ern­ments are sup­por­ted to have a win-win situ­ation in terms of sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment.”Leg­al acu­men will be needed to en­hance ac­cess to tech­no­logy, en­sure pri­vacy and se­cur­ity, es­tab­lish reg­u­lat­ory frame­works and em­power con­tract design across the health­care sup­ply chain. This ex­pert­ise will un­der­pin the United Na­tions Sus­tain­able Pro­cure­ment in the Health Sec­tor (SPS) pro­gramme which aims to en­cour­age in­dustry, man­u­fac­tur­ers and sup­pli­ers to cham­pi­on sus­tain­ab­il­ity.The UN’s 17 Sus­tain­able De­vel­op­ment Goals in­clude health­care where a com­plex land­scape of law and reg­u­la­tions de­mands leg­al skills across areas such as In­tel­lec­tu­al Prop­erty, risk man­age­ment, AI tech­no­logy dis­putes and eco­nom­ic and so­cial re­spons­ib­il­it­ies.Law­yers are in­creas­ingly be­ing called upon to de­vel­op policies, reg­u­la­tions and laws to pro­tect the en­vir­on­ment and pub­lic health, and have a pos­it­ive im­pact help­ing emer­ging na­tions to de­vel­op sus­tain­able prac­tices.“We need to make sure that we wake up to this crisis that we're fa­cing and be­gin to ad­dress those things that are with­in our means and it's very good that we are speak­ing to law­yers be­cause that part­ner­ship is very im­port­ant,” ad­ded Mr Milimo.“We need lead­er­ship from our politi­cians. We need lead­er­ship from our church and health­care to re­li­gious in­sti­tu­tions.  We need lead­er­ship from busi­ness.  We need lead­er­ship from law­yers, we need lead­er­ship from all angles for us to achieve what we are try­ing to achieve.“A part­ner­ship with an in­sti­tu­tion like CMS can only help us to move for­ward and can only make us have sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment on our agenda and we will need your help to en­sure that we are sup­port­ing coun­tries come up with very strong laws.”Dr Ro­land Wir­ing, a life sci­ences part­ner and Head of In­tel­lec­tu­al Prop­erty at CMS Ham­burg, com­men­ted: “Gov­ernance, so­cial re­spons­ib­il­ity and en­vir­on­ment­al pro­tec­tion risk is of course at the core of the ESG is­sues that pharma com­pan­ies and tech com­pan­ies face.  What the UN does in this con­text, is im­press­ive, and can also in­spire, from our point of view both our work and the work of the cli­ents of the in­dustry.”