The written legal statement is legally binding if it is signed with a handwritten signature or by e-signature. If the parties choose to sign a statement by e-signature, they should expressly agree on this in a legal statement.
There are three types of e-signatures in accordance with the Russian legislation: simple electronic signature, enhanced qualified electronic signature (similar to QES as defined in the eIDAS Regulation) and enhanced unqualified signature (similar to AdES as defined in the eIDAS Regulation). The last two types of signatures differ from each other by the level of encryption protection.
The enhanced qualified signature is equivalent to a handwritten signature and will allow the person signing the statement to be identified. Both the enhanced qualified signature and unqualified signature will allow any changes made to the statement after signing to be detected. Moreover, the legal statement signed by the enhanced unqualified electronic signature will also include the e-signature verification procedure. The statement signed by a simple electronic signature will be deemed legally binding if the statement contains: (i) an electornic signature; (ii) information regarding the person on behalf of whom the statement was generated and/or sent; (iii) rules for identification of a person signing electronic messages based on its simple electronic signature; (iv) the parties' obligation to keep the means for generating the simple electronic signature (e.g., codes, passwords) confidential.