Owner: Liability of the owner would be determined by existing general liability laws as there are no rules specific to AVs.
Driver / operator: The vehicle operator, defined as a person, in the interest of which the vehicle is operated (i.e. the driver or the owner of the vehicle), is responsible for damages caused by the vehicle. This can lead to criminal liability.
Manufacturer: Liability of the developer (i.e. the manufacturer of the vehicle or the developer of an automation software or system) of the AV would be subject to existing general strict liability rules for damages caused by the AV in “autonomous mode” unless it can prove that the damage was unavoidable. The liability will only arise when the damages are caused by a faulty part or solution applied by the developer.