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Entdecken Sie zukunftsweisende Entwicklungen und juristische Einblicke von unseren Rechtsexpertinnnen und Rechtsexperten aus allen Bereichen von CMS. Unsere Expert Guides sind von CMS Anwältinnen und Anwälte aus allen Jurisdiktionen verfasst, in welchen wir tätig sind. Diese können Sie sowohl online als auch offline lesen. Sie erhalten dort umfassende juristische Recherchen und Einschätzungen. Unsere Law-Now-Artikel bieten Ihnen rechtliche Analysen, Kommentare und Erkenntnisse, die Ihnen helfen, zukünftige Herausforderungen zu meistern.



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25/11/2022
En­er­gy Sa­vings Gui­de
This CMS Gui­de is de­si­gned to shi­ne a light on the wi­de va­rie­ty of en­er­gy sa­ving laws in selec­ted CEE coun­tries by ex­plai­ning the most im­portant le­gal mea­su­res and hel­ping you to dis­co­ver whe­re your op­por­tu­nities might lie. Po­li­ti­cal and le­gal frame­work En­er­gy trans­for­ma­ti­on re­qui­res buil­ding up new en­er­gy sour­ces and that ta­kes ti­me. Sa­ving en­er­gy, howe­ver, is the qui­ckest and chea­pest way to ad­dress the cur­rent en­er­gy cri­sis, which is main­ly cau­sed by Rus­sia’s in­va­si­on of Ukrai­ne. Re­du­cing en­er­gy con­sump­ti­on cuts hou­se­holds’ and com­pa­nies’ high en­er­gy bills.Buil­ding on the “Fit for 55” pa­cka­ge of pro­po­sals and com­ple­ting the ac­tions on en­er­gy se­cu­ri­ty of sup­p­ly and sto­r­a­ge, the Eu­ro­pean Com­mis­si­on’s RE­Power­EU plan put for­ward a set of fi­ve ac­tions, the first of which is en­er­gy sa­ving. Uni­on law sets forth man­da­to­ry sa­ving goals for Mem­ber Sta­tes but lea­ves them ple­nty of lee­way to choo­se bet­ween a va­rie­ty of mea­su­res. Ap­p­li­cant coun­tries and ma­ny others ha­ve pas­sed en­er­gy sa­vings laws and tar­gets too – of­fe­ring ad­di­tio­nal fle­xi­bi­li­ty.As a frame­work, the Fit for 55 pa­cka­ge and the Eu­ro­pean Cli­ma­te Law (REG 2021/1119) sets out a bin­ding, ir­re­ver­si­ble re­duc­tion of an­thro­po­ge­nic emis­si­ons. By 2030, 55% of the net GHG (green­hou­se gas) emis­si­ons com­pa­red to 1990 must be sa­ved. By 2050, the man­da­to­ry net ze­ro emis­si­on goal must be achie­ved.Re­gu­la­ti­on 2022/1032 re­qui­res that mem­ber sta­tes fill their gas sto­r­a­ge fa­ci­li­ties to at least 80-90% or that they store at least 35% of their aver­a­ge an­nu­al con­sump­ti­on in Eu­ro­pean sto­r­a­ge fa­ci­li­ties. Re­du­cing con­sump­ti­on over the ye­ars re­du­ces the fil­ling ob­li­ga­ti­on.Sin­ce Au­gust 2022, ob­li­ga­to­ry re­duc­tions in gas con­sump­ti­on ap­p­ly to EU mem­ber sta­tes (Re­gu­la­ti­on 2022/1032). The co­re in­no­va­ti­on of this re­gime is the Uni­on alarm that can be trig­ge­red by the Eu­ro­pean Coun­cil if the­re is a ma­te­ri­al risk of gra­ve gas sup­p­ly shor­ta­ges, ex­tra­or­di­na­ry gas de­mand or a na­tio­nal alarm pur­suant to Di­rec­tive 2017/1938 in at least fi­ve Mem­ber Sta­tes. On­ce a Uni­on alarm has be­en trig­ge­red and for as long as it re­mains in force, mem­ber sta­tes must re­du­ce their gas con­sump­ti­on by 15%. The­re is a par­ti­al ex­cep­ti­on if this would other­wi­se cau­se an electri­ci­ty cri­sis in the re­spec­tive mem­ber sta­te. Howe­ver, the stee­ring mea­su­res to be ta­ken and whe­ther cer­tain groups of gas con­su­mers are gran­ted mo­re fa­voura­ble con­di­ti­ons re­main at the mem­ber sta­te’s dis­cre­ti­on. Re­gar­ding electri­ci­ty, Re­gu­la­ti­on 2022/1854 on an emer­gen­cy in­ter­ven­ti­on to ad­dress high en­er­gy pri­ces aims to re­du­ce electri­ci­ty con­sump­ti­on by 10% and ea­se the pres­su­re on electri­ci­ty pri­ces through re­ve­nue caps. Again, Mem­ber Sta­tes are free to choo­se the ap­pro­pria­te mea­su­res to re­du­ce gross electri­ci­ty con­sump­ti­on and meet the 10% tar­get.Ad­di­tio­nal ru­les ap­p­ly to the fu­el con­sump­ti­on of trucks or the en­er­gy con­sump­ti­on of district hea­ting/coo­ling. The CMS Gui­de The re­sult of the­se re­gu­la­ti­ons con­cerning en­er­gy sa­ving has be­en the in­tro­duc­tion of a wi­de va­rie­ty of en­er­gy sa­ving laws in in­di­vi­du­al sta­tes; and ma­ny mo­re mea­su­res are still to co­me. This CMS Gui­de is de­si­gned to shi­ne a light on the­se re­gu­la­ti­ons by ex­plai­ning the most im­portant le­gal mea­su­res and hel­ping you to dis­co­ver whe­re your op­por­tu­nities might lie. For each ju­ris­dic­tion, the gui­de is struc­tu­red in­to: (1) a coun­try over­view,  (2) na­tio­nal re­li­ef mea­su­res for high en­er­gy pri­ces,  (3) na­tio­nal/re­gio­nal/com­mu­nal en­er­gy sa­vings mea­su­res, and  (4) en­er­gy sto­r­a­ge sta­tus and in­cen­ti­ves.The fol­lo­wing mea­su­res ha­ve be­en cho­sen by the sta­tes re­pre­sen­ted in this  gui­de:  sub­si­dies to end-con­su­mers (Aus­tria in ge­ne­ral for en­er­gy pri­ces; Croa­tia for gas con­sump­ti­on), pri­ce caps: electri­ci­ty (Croa­tia for hou­se­holds, un­der­ta­kings and cer­tain­pu­blic con­su­mers; Ukrai­ne for hou­se­holds),re­du­ced VAT ra­te (Croa­tia, North Mace­do­nia), tax in­cen­ti­ves to pri­va­te­ly store gas (Ukrai­ne); ex­emp­ti­on from stee­ring mea­su­res for pri­va­te­ly sto­ring gas (Aus­tria),sub­si­dies to com­pen­sa­te for high en­er­gy pri­ces (Bul­ga­ria and Slo­va­kia, in Slove­nia for en­t­er­pri­ses, in Tür­kiye for agri­cul­tu­re) and en­er­gy sa­ving mea­su­res: (Croa­tia for SMEs); the re­al­lo­ca­ti­on of EU funds to sup­port en­er­gy con­su­mers (Slo­va­kia); sub­si­dies for en­er­gy sto­r­a­ge so­lu­ti­ons (Aus­tria, Bul­ga­ria and Ukrai­ne) or for heat pro­du­cers (Ukrai­ne),en­er­gy ef­fi­ci­en­cy mea­su­res in­cl. di­gi­ta­li­sa­ti­on (Bul­ga­ria),re­du­ced hours of electri­ci­ty or hea­ting sup­p­ly (North Mace­do­nia) or of gas sup­p­ly (Slo­va­kia),re­duc­tion of en­er­gy con­sump­ti­on by the pu­blic ad­mi­nis­tra­ti­on (Aus­tria, North Mace­do­nia, Slove­nia), an­dobli­ga­ti­ons on gas sto­r­a­ge ope­ra­tors to feed gas in­to the grid (Aus­tria, Slo­va­kia) or to sup­p­ly heat pro­du­cers at pre­fe­ren­ti­al pri­ces (Ukrai­ne).re­wards for vol­un­ta­ry re­duc­tion of gas and/or electric en­er­gy con­sump­ti­on (Slove­nia)edu­ced per­mit­ting re­qui­re­ments for PV and wind plants (Tür­kiye).
21/03/2022
So­ci­al as­pect of ESG - Le­xi­con of most im­portant terms and phra­ses
Le­xi­con of most im­portant terms and phra­ses wi­t­hin the So­ci­al as­pect of ESG
24/02/2022
Pro­spects for in­stal­la­ti­on and uti­liza­t­i­on of rooft­op so­lar pho­to­vol­taics...
CMS Gui­de
08/10/2020
Leit­fa­den für Re­struk­tu­rie­run­gen in CEE und Ös­ter­reich
Re­struk­tu­rie­run­gen, vor al­lem sol­che über meh­re­re Ju­ris­dik­tio­nen hin­weg, sind stets kom­ple­xe An­ge­le­gen­hei­ten. In die­sem CMS-Leit­fa­den be­ant­wor­ten un­se­re Rechts­ex­per­ten sie­ben wich­ti­ge prak­ti­sche Fra­gen...
28/07/2020
La­wy­ers on Whist­leb­lo­wer Pro­tec­tion and In­ter­nal In­ves­ti­ga­ti­ons
In Oc­to­ber 2019, when the Eu­ro­pean Uni­on ap­pro­ved the Whist­leb­lo­wer Pro­tec­tion Di­rec­tive, ma­ny EU ju­ris­dic­tions re-ex­ami­ned their in­ter­nal in­ves­ti­ga­ti­ons sys­tems. At the sa­me ti­me, an open dis­cus­sion...
28/07/2020
Gui­de on in­ter­na­tio­nal da­ta trans­fers – Drawing on the Schrems II Ca­se
On 16 Ju­ly 2020, al­most fi­ve ye­ars af­ter the Safe Har­bour Agree­ment bet­ween the Eu­ro­pean Uni­on and United Sta­tes was ru­led in­va­lid, the Court of Jus­ti­ce of the Eu­ro­pean Uni­on de­li­ver­ed a judgment on...
04/06/2020
CEE Mer­ger Cle­aran­ce Ma­trix
Grenz­über­schrei­ten­de M&A-Trans­ak­tio­nen, die Fu­si­ons­kon­troll­ge­neh­mi­gun­gen in meh­re­ren Ju­ris­dik­tio­nen er­for­dern, sind an der Ta­ges­ord­nung. Um Zeit­ver­zö­ge­run­gen zu re­du­zie­ren und die Kos­ten nied­rig zu...
11/05/2020
AI in Life Sci­en­ces
Ar­ti­fi­ci­al in­tel­li­gence is not new: the term its­elf was coi­ned over 60 ye­ars ago. Howe­ver, the con­ver­gence of da­ta vo­lu­me, pro­ces­sing power and tech­ni­cal ca­pa­bi­li­ty has con­vin­ced ma­ny that the AI era...
14/04/2020
CMS-LEIT­FA­DEN ZU IM­MO­BI­LI­EN­TRANS­AK­TI­ONS­KOS­TEN UND -STEU­ERN IN EU­RO­PA
Die­ser CMS-Leit­fa­den bie­tet ei­nen Ver­gleich im Ta­schen­for­mat an, der die wich­tigs­ten eu­ro­päi­schen Län­der ge­gen­über­stellt, in de­nen es CMS-Nie­der­las­sun­gen gibt. Die An­ge­bo­te ge­hen von ei­nem ein­zel­nen...
29/01/2020
En­er­gy Tran­si­ti­on: Evo­lu­ti­on or Re­vo­lu­ti­on?
The en­er­gy tran­si­ti­on is upon us – Gre­ta Thun­berg and Extinc­tion Re­bel­li­on con­ti­nue to ge­ne­ra­te mo­re head­lines than Green­peace and, in Eu­ro­pe at least, the­re is si­gni­fi­cant so­cie­tal pres­su­re to mo­ve...
18/12/2019
In­ter­na­tio­nal Dis­pu­tes Di­gest - Win­ter Edi­ti­on 2019
Back to main pa­ge Wel­co­me to the win­ter edi­ti­on of our In­ter­na­tio­nal Dis­pu­tes Di­gest, a bi-an­nu­al pu­bli­ca­ti­on fea­turing ana­ly­sis and com­men­ta­ry on the key trends cur­rent­ly shaping the glo­bal dis­pu­te re­so­lu­ti­on...
18/11/2019
CMS Pu­blic Pro­cu­re­ment Tool­box of Re­me­di­es (Pu­bli­ka­ti­on auf Eng­lisch)
Das öf­fent­li­che Ver­ga­be­recht ist mit rund ei­nem Fünf­tel des welt­wei­ten BIP der größ­te glo­ba­le Markt­platz. In die­sem zu­neh­mend in­ter­na­tio­na­len Markt müs­sen Un­ter­neh­men dar­auf ver­trau­en kön­nen, dass...