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En­er­gy Sa­vings Gui­de
This CMS Gui­de is de­si­gned to shi­ne a light on the wi­de va­rie­ty of en­er­gy sa­ving laws in selec­ted CEE coun­tries by ex­plai­ning the most im­portant le­gal mea­su­res and hel­ping you to dis­co­ver whe­re your op­por­tu­nities might lie. Po­li­ti­cal and le­gal frame­work En­er­gy trans­for­ma­ti­on re­qui­res buil­ding up new en­er­gy sour­ces and that ta­kes ti­me. Sa­ving en­er­gy, howe­ver, is the qui­ckest and chea­pest way to ad­dress the cur­rent en­er­gy cri­sis, which is main­ly cau­sed by Rus­sia’s in­va­si­on of Ukrai­ne. Re­du­cing en­er­gy con­sump­ti­on cuts hou­se­holds’ and com­pa­nies’ high en­er­gy bills.Buil­ding on the “Fit for 55” pa­cka­ge of pro­po­sals and com­ple­ting the ac­tions on en­er­gy se­cu­ri­ty of sup­p­ly and sto­r­a­ge, the Eu­ro­pean Com­mis­si­on’s RE­Power­EU plan put for­ward a set of fi­ve ac­tions, the first of which is en­er­gy sa­ving. Uni­on law sets forth man­da­to­ry sa­ving goals for Mem­ber Sta­tes but lea­ves them ple­nty of lee­way to choo­se bet­ween a va­rie­ty of mea­su­res. Ap­p­li­cant coun­tries and ma­ny others ha­ve pas­sed en­er­gy sa­vings laws and tar­gets too – of­fe­ring ad­di­tio­nal fle­xi­bi­li­ty.As a frame­work, the Fit for 55 pa­cka­ge and the Eu­ro­pean Cli­ma­te Law (REG 2021/1119) sets out a bin­ding, ir­re­ver­si­ble re­duc­tion of an­thro­po­ge­nic emis­si­ons. By 2030, 55% of the net GHG (green­hou­se gas) emis­si­ons com­pa­red to 1990 must be sa­ved. By 2050, the man­da­to­ry net ze­ro emis­si­on goal must be achie­ved.Re­gu­la­ti­on 2022/1032 re­qui­res that mem­ber sta­tes fill their gas sto­r­a­ge fa­ci­li­ties to at least 80-90% or that they store at least 35% of their aver­a­ge an­nu­al con­sump­ti­on in Eu­ro­pean sto­r­a­ge fa­ci­li­ties. Re­du­cing con­sump­ti­on over the ye­ars re­du­ces the fil­ling ob­li­ga­ti­on.Sin­ce Au­gust 2022, ob­li­ga­to­ry re­duc­tions in gas con­sump­ti­on ap­p­ly to EU mem­ber sta­tes (Re­gu­la­ti­on 2022/1032). The co­re in­no­va­ti­on of this re­gime is the Uni­on alarm that can be trig­ge­red by the Eu­ro­pean Coun­cil if the­re is a ma­te­ri­al risk of gra­ve gas sup­p­ly shor­ta­ges, ex­tra­or­di­na­ry gas de­mand or a na­tio­nal alarm pur­suant to Di­rec­tive 2017/1938 in at least fi­ve Mem­ber Sta­tes. On­ce a Uni­on alarm has be­en trig­ge­red and for as long as it re­mains in force, mem­ber sta­tes must re­du­ce their gas con­sump­ti­on by 15%. The­re is a par­ti­al ex­cep­ti­on if this would other­wi­se cau­se an electri­ci­ty cri­sis in the re­spec­tive mem­ber sta­te. Howe­ver, the stee­ring mea­su­res to be ta­ken and whe­ther cer­tain groups of gas con­su­mers are gran­ted mo­re fa­voura­ble con­di­ti­ons re­main at the mem­ber sta­te’s dis­cre­ti­on. Re­gar­ding electri­ci­ty, Re­gu­la­ti­on 2022/1854 on an emer­gen­cy in­ter­ven­ti­on to ad­dress high en­er­gy pri­ces aims to re­du­ce electri­ci­ty con­sump­ti­on by 10% and ea­se the pres­su­re on electri­ci­ty pri­ces through re­ve­nue caps. Again, Mem­ber Sta­tes are free to choo­se the ap­pro­pria­te mea­su­res to re­du­ce gross electri­ci­ty con­sump­ti­on and meet the 10% tar­get.Ad­di­tio­nal ru­les ap­p­ly to the fu­el con­sump­ti­on of trucks or the en­er­gy con­sump­ti­on of district hea­ting/coo­ling. The CMS Gui­de The re­sult of the­se re­gu­la­ti­ons con­cerning en­er­gy sa­ving has be­en the in­tro­duc­tion of a wi­de va­rie­ty of en­er­gy sa­ving laws in in­di­vi­du­al sta­tes; and ma­ny mo­re mea­su­res are still to co­me. This CMS Gui­de is de­si­gned to shi­ne a light on the­se re­gu­la­ti­ons by ex­plai­ning the most im­portant le­gal mea­su­res and hel­ping you to dis­co­ver whe­re your op­por­tu­nities might lie. For each ju­ris­dic­tion, the gui­de is struc­tu­red in­to: (1) a coun­try over­view,  (2) na­tio­nal re­li­ef mea­su­res for high en­er­gy pri­ces,  (3) na­tio­nal/re­gio­nal/com­mu­nal en­er­gy sa­vings mea­su­res, and  (4) en­er­gy sto­r­a­ge sta­tus and in­cen­ti­ves.The fol­lo­wing mea­su­res ha­ve be­en cho­sen by the sta­tes re­pre­sen­ted in this  gui­de:  sub­si­dies to end-con­su­mers (Aus­tria in ge­ne­ral for en­er­gy pri­ces; Croa­tia for gas con­sump­ti­on), pri­ce caps: electri­ci­ty (Croa­tia for hou­se­holds, un­der­ta­kings and cer­tain­pu­blic con­su­mers; Ukrai­ne for hou­se­holds),re­du­ced VAT ra­te (Croa­tia, North Mace­do­nia), tax in­cen­ti­ves to pri­va­te­ly store gas (Ukrai­ne); ex­emp­ti­on from stee­ring mea­su­res for pri­va­te­ly sto­ring gas (Aus­tria),sub­si­dies to com­pen­sa­te for high en­er­gy pri­ces (Bul­ga­ria and Slo­va­kia, in Slove­nia for en­t­er­pri­ses, in Tür­kiye for agri­cul­tu­re) and en­er­gy sa­ving mea­su­res: (Croa­tia for SMEs); the re­al­lo­ca­ti­on of EU funds to sup­port en­er­gy con­su­mers (Slo­va­kia); sub­si­dies for en­er­gy sto­r­a­ge so­lu­ti­ons (Aus­tria, Bul­ga­ria and Ukrai­ne) or for heat pro­du­cers (Ukrai­ne),en­er­gy ef­fi­ci­en­cy mea­su­res in­cl. di­gi­ta­li­sa­ti­on (Bul­ga­ria),re­du­ced hours of electri­ci­ty or hea­ting sup­p­ly (North Mace­do­nia) or of gas sup­p­ly (Slo­va­kia),re­duc­tion of en­er­gy con­sump­ti­on by the pu­blic ad­mi­nis­tra­ti­on (Aus­tria, North Mace­do­nia, Slove­nia), an­dobli­ga­ti­ons on gas sto­r­a­ge ope­ra­tors to feed gas in­to the grid (Aus­tria, Slo­va­kia) or to sup­p­ly heat pro­du­cers at pre­fe­ren­ti­al pri­ces (Ukrai­ne).re­wards for vol­un­ta­ry re­duc­tion of gas and/or electric en­er­gy con­sump­ti­on (Slove­nia)edu­ced per­mit­ting re­qui­re­ments for PV and wind plants (Tür­kiye).
So­ci­al as­pect of ESG - Le­xi­con of most im­portant terms and phra­ses
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