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With demand for prime assets higher than ever, real estate investment is becoming an increasingly global market. Being able to respond quickly to investment opportunities, in whatever jurisdiction they present themselves, is essential. Whether you are looking to make your first investment in the UK or adding to a growing portfolio across Europe, at CMS we have a team of lawyers with exceptional experience across the full range of investment sectors, including the more specialist alternative asset classes.

We are working with the most active funds across the UK, together with a range of private equity and individual investors, helping them acquire and realise the best returns on a wide range of investment assets including retail, leisure, hotels, office, industrial, residential and student accommodation.

We build long-standing relationships with our clients, large and small, to understand their strategy and priorities as an investor. For example, we have exclusive mandates on the M&G Property Portfolio fund and Aberdeen Property Trust - currently the two largest real estate funds of their kind in the UK. We also have exclusive mandates on the Akzo Nobel, Siemens and Thames Water pension schemes, funds which focus on smaller investment properties. We have acted for these funds for over 20 years, dealing with all portfolio matters from multi million pound acquisitions and disposals to licences to assign and rent review memoranda.

In addition to our UK work, we have European-wide relationships with investors like Pramerica who we have acted for in France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

High­lights of our Ex­per­i­ence in Real Es­tate In­vest­ment in the UK
Stand­ard Life In­vest­ments on the ac­quis­i­tion, joint de­vel­op­ment fund­ing and let­ting of 3-8 St An­drew Square, Ed­in­burgh.  Val­ued at around GBP 75m, the 108,000 square foot deal is the biggest pre-let...
Law-Now: Real Es­tate
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Ma­jor in­dustry sur­vey re­veals ex­tent to which tech­no­logy is re­volu­tion­ising...
Over 4,000 glob­al in­dustry lead­ers, of­fice oc­cu­pi­ers, renters, re­tail de­cision makers and life sci­ences pro­fes­sion­als con­sul­ted in biggest in­dustry sur­vey of its kind to un­pack how, where and why tech­no­logy...
In­dustry lead­ers be­lieve pen­sion funds will take a hit as a res­ult of the con­tin­ued ex­ten­sion of the morator­i­um on un­paid rent, which won’t sup­port ten­ant re­cov­ery in the long term  The de­cision by...
Yearn­ing for a re­turn to the of­fice grows
People miss the of­fice, the hu­man in­ter­ac­tion it pro­motes and the clear bound­ar­ies that of­fice life cre­ates between per­son­al and pro­fes­sion­al life.In many or­gan­isa­tions, it has been young­er people who have lob­bied hard­est for a re­turn to the of­fice, un­able to work sat­is­fact­or­ily at home and miss­ing the op­por­tun­it­ies and so­cial in­ter­ac­tion that of­fice life presents.As city centres be­gin to work out a new fu­ture, tech­no­logy will be at the heart of the de­bate, with the more fa­vour­able build­ings al­low­ing people to work seam­lessly and con­nect with col­leagues around the world at the same time as giv­ing a feel­ing of safety and se­cur­ity.With ‘the di­git­al work­place’ now con­sidered the new work­ing en­vir­on­ment, em­ploy­ers need to both em­bed the phys­ic­al im­ple­ment­a­tion of smart tech­no­logy in their build­ings and to en­sure the vir­tu­al work­ing ex­per­i­ence trans­forms the em­ploy­ee ex­per­i­ence by fos­ter­ing ef­fi­ciency, in­nov­a­tion and the so­cial ele­ments that many people crave in their work­place.
A tech-driv­en trans­form­a­tion
The in­creas­ing im­port­ance of tech­no­logy and di­git­al­isa­tion has come to the fore through­out the COV­ID-19 pan­dem­ic, par­tic­u­larly in the of­fice mar­ket but also in life sci­ences, build to rent and lo­gist­ics.
A new di­vide for of­fices
Tech­no­logy and an in­nov­at­ive ap­proach to sus­tain­ab­il­ity and well­being are set to se­cure the fu­ture of the of­fice. In a world where the of­fice now has to com­pete with the com­fort of work­ing from home, it needs to find a new pur­pose to per­suade people to re­turn to the com­mute, at least some of the time.
Real es­tate bounces back
Re­cov­ery of the real es­tate mar­ket is well un­der way, with op­tim­ism rising and a vac­cine-promp­ted bounce pro­pelled fur­ther by two power­ful forces driv­ing the sec­tor’s fu­ture: tech­no­logy and ESG.
Real Es­tate Re­bound
After the seis­mic shifts and re-eval­u­ations faced by us all in real es­tate over the last 18 months, our latest an­nu­al re­search makes it clear that, for both the sec­tor and its cli­ents, vac­cine-led con­fid­ence and op­tim­ism are sup­por­ted by two ad­di­tion­al forces shap­ing our fu­ture: tech­no­logy and ESG.
Real es­tate cata­pults ahead
The dawn of pr­op­tech was 1980-2000 and saw the rise of soft­ware tools that made as­set man­age­ment easi­er. Pr­op­tech 2.0 was 2000-2015 with the rise of the likes of Zo­opla and Airb­nb help­ing the con­sumer, in par­tic­u­lar, to re-think their re­la­tion­ship with real es­tate. We are now at the dawn of Pr­op­tech 3.0, driv­en by con­cepts such as AI, ro­bot­ics, 5G, 3D print­ing and the In­ter­net of Things, (IoT) which will cre­ate the biggest changes of all and will in­crease the speed of change after the seis­mic up­heav­al of COV­ID-19. Many people see this as a fourth in­dus­tri­al re­volu­tion, rep­res­ent­ing a fun­da­ment­al change in the way we live – a new chapter in hu­man de­vel­op­ment en­abled by ex­traordin­ary tech­no­lo­gic­al ad­vances com­men­sur­ate with the first, second and third in­dus­tri­al re­volu­tions. The im­pact on the built en­vir­on­ment dur­ing the 2020s will be pro­found.
Tech drives push to­wards net zero
Real es­tate pro­fes­sion­als have had a dra­mat­ic con­ver­sion in the last 12 months to­wards the prin­ciple of achiev­ing net zero, ac­cord­ing to our polling.While the concept was barely un­der­stood two years ago – and in­dustry ex­perts were taken aback by ini­tial glob­al am­bi­tions to achieve net zero by 2040 or 2050, the real es­tate sec­tor has been gal­van­ised in­to ac­tion by its in­vestors and oc­cu­pi­ers and is now look­ing to hit its tar­gets by 2030-2035. Tech­no­logy has to be at the heart of this: stake­hold­ers from across the real es­tate world now have the mo­tiv­a­tion, fin­an­cially and eth­ic­ally, to cre­ate and util­ise tech­no­logy that can help cre­ate green­er build­ings.In the last year the biggest play­ers in UK real es­tate, in­clud­ing Aviva In­vestors, Brit­ish Land, Land­sec and SE­GRO, have set bold tar­gets to reach net zero, with most re­spond­ents ex­pect­ing the real es­tate world to beat gov­ern­ment tar­gets by achiev­ing net zero emis­sions by 2035 at the latest.
In­ter­view: Sam­antha Kempe, IMMO
Please tell us about your busi­ness  IMMO is a tech-driv­en in­vest­ment man­ager, which sources, leases and man­ages single fam­ily res­id­en­tial homes with the aim of un­lock­ing this part of the res­id­en­tial sec­tor for in­sti­tu­tion­al in­vestors.While build-to-rent apart­ments have grown rap­idly as an in­vest­ment class, single fam­ily res­id­en­tial is 98% of the sec­tor but has not so far been struc­tured to ap­peal to in­sti­tu­tions. We of­fer homeown­ers the op­por­tun­ity to sell their homes to IMMO, then we re­fur­bish, im­prove and lease these prop­er­ties to new ten­ants, on be­half of in­sti­tu­tions look­ing to build stable single-fam­ily rent­al port­fo­li­os. How im­port­ant is tech­no­logy and in­nov­a­tion to the fu­ture of your com­pany?  Tech­no­logy is at the heart and in the DNA of our busi­ness – every per­son with­in the com­pany op­er­ates with a data-first mind­set. This is what dif­fer­en­ti­ates us versus oth­er real es­tate com­pan­ies.This dif­fer­en­ti­ation is key to solv­ing the many prob­lems that ex­ist all along the res­id­en­tial value chain. We have taken apart and put back to­geth­er every single stage of the value chain in a smarter way.Many of these pain points are con­sumer re­lated. For ex­ample, selling or rent­ing a home is among the biggest trans­ac­tion any­one will un­der­take, but it still shocks us that you can pay GBP 3 for a cof­fee and get a bet­ter and more con­sist­ent product and ser­vice com­pared to when rent­ing your home, which your largest and most im­port­ant ex­pense every month.The cer­tainty and pro­fes­sion­al­ism we provide to sellers is im­port­ant to them, and renters get a great qual­ity, newly-re­fur­bished home. Our cus­tom­er sup­port team and our con­trac­tu­al pro­cesses are all ded­ic­ated to provid­ing a seam­less, di­git­al and ef­fi­cient ser­vice to con­sumers. How does tech­no­logy help with the run­ning of IMMO it­self?  To be­gin with, our un­der­writ­ing pro­cess has been trans­formed. Tra­di­tion­ally an in­vest­ment man­ager would build an Ex­cel mod­el, spend­ing days or weeks try­ing to gath­er in­form­a­tion from dif­fer­ent ex­perts but we have auto­mated that pro­cess.We have also changed the way com­par­ables are se­lec­ted for ana­lys­is of a trans­ac­tion through ma­chine learn­ing tools.But these aren’t `black box’ auto­mated valu­ation mod­els where you don’t know how you have come up with a num­ber: the out­puts, cash flows and sens­it­iv­ity ana­lys­is are all cal­cu­lated and re­por­ted in a fully audit­able, trans­par­ent man­ner.It would nor­mally take an in­vest­ment man­ager sev­er­al days to un­der­write an in­vest­ment from scratch: we can do that in 45 minutes since 95% of the pro­cess which is data gath­er­ing, copy­ing and past­ing in­to the mod­el, cre­at­ing the in­vest­ment re­com­mend­a­tion etc has been auto­mated.Tech­no­logy is also im­port­ant to us in cre­at­ing a seam­less flow of in­form­a­tion: typ­ic­ally, people pass spread sheets down the value chain – and you then have ex­tremely smart people wast­ing much of their time simply re­con­cil­ing those spread­sheets.We have de­vised a sys­tem that auto­mates many work­flows, en­abling clean, ef­fi­cient data to be ac­cessed and used at every step of the value chain: a data-first mind­set is key to our busi­ness. How will tech­no­logy help as IMMO grows?  We have been in busi­ness for four years, de­vel­op­ing tech­no­logy across our value chain. 80% of our tech­no­logy acts as a blue­print that can be trans­ferred across to new in­ter­na­tion­al mar­kets and everything we do has been built with scal­ing up in mind.The mar­ket in­tel­li­gence and ana­lyt­ics we have been able to provide to in­vestors on this huge but new in­sti­tu­tion­al sec­tor has blown them away. The trans­par­ency on of­fer al­lows them to drill down in­to each as­set as they want to, and can ac­cess very gran­u­lar de­tail. How does real es­tate’s take-up of tech­no­logy com­pare with oth­er sec­tors? It’s very prom­ising that there is a huge in­tent to di­git­al­ise the real es­tate sec­tor gen­er­ally, but so many com­pan­ies are wrest­ling with how to in­cor­por­ate tech­no­logy in two ways.First, the IT in­fra­struc­ture is miss­ing, and it will be massive for them to try to change or re­build.Second, com­pan­ies are ap­point­ing Chief Tech­no­logy Of­ficers or Heads of Di­git­al In­nov­a­tion, but they alone can­not trans­form a busi­ness. It needs a real change of mind­set across an en­tire or­gan­isa­tion to fully em­brace and ad­opt tech­no­logy to the level re­quired, and not every real es­tate com­pany is ready for that. Ideally, every single em­ploy­ee will be chal­len­ging them­selves to think how tech­no­logy and data can not only im­prove pro­cesses, but also em­power them to make smarter de­cisions. How has COV­ID-19 changed the in­flu­ence of tech­no­logy in real es­tate?  COV­ID has massively ac­cel­er­ated the pro­cess. Be­fore the pan­dem­ic, people were hes­it­ant in un­der­stand­ing what tech­no­logy could do, but ad­op­tion in the last year has been fant­ast­ic.This has forced people to real­ise the world is chan­ging, and for real es­tate it has been a big wake-up call, mak­ing them more open-minded on what tech­no­logy can do and should do. Hope­fully, many people will also go sev­er­al steps fur­ther and chal­lenge them­selves and their com­pan­ies to con­sider how they can bet­ter in­cor­por­ate tech­no­logy.
In­ter­view: Thomas Muller, Uni­on In­vest­ment
Can you please tell us about Uni­on In­vest­ment? As a Ger­man-based busi­ness, we have a long-stand­ing pres­ence in the real es­tate mar­ket, man­aging in­vest­ments for in­sti­tu­tion­al and private in­vestors via a wide range of funds. We cur­rently man­age a world­wide port­fo­lio of over 400 prop­er­ties across mul­tiple sec­tors, com­pris­ing around EUR 50 bn of as­sets un­der man­age­ment. What is your role in the com­pany? As Head of Di­git­al Trans­form­a­tion, my role is two­fold. Firstly, along­side the CEO, I am re­spons­ible for the over­all strategy and de­vel­op­ment of the com­pany, and secondly, I work with the COO to en­sure the im­ple­ment­a­tion of the strategy. The team I lead is com­par­able to a cor­por­ate man­age­ment de­part­ment, where the di­git­al­isa­tion of op­er­a­tions is in­teg­rated with all areas of the busi­ness in­clud­ing sus­tain­ab­il­ity, pro­cess and con­trol man­age­ment, so all top­ics, trends and is­sues in­flu­en­cing the de­vel­op­ment of the busi­ness come across my desk. So di­git­al­isa­tion is in­trins­ic to both the op­er­a­tion­al busi­ness and stra­tegic de­vel­op­ment of the com­pany? Ab­so­lutely. We em­braced di­git­al­isa­tion in 2016 when we real­ised the im­pact di­git­al tech­no­lo­gies were set to have on real es­tate, and our sec­tor as whole was be­ing slow to re­act com­pared to oth­er in­dus­tries.Our ap­proach to di­git­al­isa­tion is two-di­men­sion­al.   Primar­ily we fo­cus on our in­tern­al pro­cesses and how we man­age and ana­lyse our sys­tems data by trans­fer­ring from a manu­al to auto­mated pro­cess to gain more cost ef­fi­cien­cies. We then look at how we can best ad­apt this tech­no­logy to cre­ate new busi­ness mod­els and de­vel­op di­git­al eco­sys­tems in and around our build­ings, put­ting the user at the centre. We then work in part­ner­ship with our ten­ants to de­vel­op the best, most at­tract­ive fea­tures and ser­vices to solve their prob­lems and en­sure they achieve max­im­um be­ne­fits from the build­ing. What are the most im­port­ant is­sues or chal­lenges for ten­ants which di­git­al tech­no­logy can help solve? It var­ies, but I think there are three com­mon themes, all of which have be­come more top­ic­al with the in­creas­ing trend of hy­brid work­ing and hot-de­sk­ing in the post-COV­ID world.Avail­ab­il­ity and cost of car park­ing, par­tic­u­larly in cent­ral loc­a­tions, is an im­port­ant top­ic, with the huge vari­ety in levels of de­mand from busy peri­ods to quieter times for both staff and ex­tern­al vis­it­ors.This forms part of wider mo­bil­ity con­cepts, such as how ten­ants and vis­it­ors move around loc­a­tions, which is an in­creas­ingly sig­ni­fic­ant is­sue. In turn, mo­bil­ity is an im­port­ant com­pon­ent of the second theme, which is sus­tain­ab­il­ity – for ex­ample, how we in­teg­rate power-char­ging.Thirdly, we fo­cus on how to sup­port the ten­ant and user by max­im­ising the con­veni­ence factor. With in­teg­rated di­git­al­ised plat­forms, work­place man­age­ment can be in­di­vidu­al­ised and en­ergy-ef­fi­cient – for ex­ample, in heat­ing, cool­ing or car­bon di­ox­ide con­cen­tra­tions.For all three there are a num­ber of pro­cesses to help, but ul­ti­mately users are able to ac­cess a mo­bile app via their smart­phone which en­ables them to check avail­ab­il­ity, view op­tions and make re­ser­va­tions in ad­vance of com­ing to the of­fice. What im­pact has COV­ID-19 had on the pace of change and ad­apt­a­tion of di­git­al tech­no­logy? The pan­dem­ic has cer­tainly sped up the ad­op­tion of di­git­al­isa­tion as the ‘new nor­mal’ and com­pan­ies without a mul­tichan­nel di­git­al busi­ness mod­el have struggled and are at a huge dis­ad­vant­age. Those with plat­forms in place have been much bet­ter equipped to sur­vive and thrive, are more con­nec­ted and can cope with the new vir­tu­al, re­mote way of work­ing as com­mon prac­tice.I think the pan­dem­ic has ac­cel­er­ated change we would have seen by sev­er­al years. What are the bar­ri­ers or chal­lenges fa­cing the wide­spread suc­cess­ful ad­op­tion of di­git­al tech­no­logy? With so many part­ners through­out the real es­tate cycle, the in­dustry is very frag­men­ted. There­fore, it is vi­tal for the in­dustry col­lect­ively to have a mind­set of co­oper­a­tion, in­ter­ac­tion and col­lab­or­a­tion. Secondly, the in­dustry some­times does not have the cour­age or the vis­ion to try new things and ex­per­i­ment. Oth­er in­dus­tries, such as IT, do this so much bet­ter, work­ing on new, vi­brant products with their cus­tom­ers. Fi­nally, and most im­port­antly, we have to learn to take people with us on the jour­ney, think about their needs, al­lay­ing fears and in­spir­ing con­fid­ence and un­der­stand­ing. What are the main over­all be­ne­fits di­git­al tech­no­logy is bring­ing to Uni­on In­vest­ment? While cost sav­ings and the ac­cel­er­a­tion of in­nov­at­ive pro­cesses are help­ing us to op­er­ate faster and more ef­fi­ciently, it is the over­all in­crease in qual­ity, and con­sist­ency of this qual­ity, which di­git­al­isa­tion provides over manu­al pro­cesses.
In­ter­view: Jason Mar­grave, Quintain
Can you please tell us about your role at Quintain? I run the com­pany’s de­vel­op­ment team, which is re­spons­ible for the phys­ic­al trans­form­a­tion of Wemb­ley Park, an 85-acre mixed- use de­vel­op­ment on the land sur­round­ing the na­tion­al sta­di­um. We have out­line plan­ning con­sent for 10.3 mil­lion sq ft of space, pre­dom­in­antly res­id­en­tial, where we have de­livered circa 4,700 of a planned 8,500 units. There is also about 1 mil­lion sq ft of com­mer­cial of­fice and half a mil­lion sq ft of re­tail and leis­ure amen­it­ies. We are halfway through com­plet­ing the de­vel­op­ment and are already at­tract­ing over 17 mil­lion people a year to Wemb­ley Park, which is more vis­it­ors than Cov­ent Garden tube sta­tion per an­num.My team’s re­mit at Wemb­ley Park is very broad, and in­cludes place­mak­ing, design, plan­ning, de­vel­op­ment vi­ab­il­ity, com­mer­cial leas­ing and the de­liv­ery of and in­ter­face with our Build to Rent product for Quintain Liv­ing. Out­side Wemb­ley Park, I am re­spons­ible for new busi­ness ori­gin­a­tion and ac­quis­i­tion. How has di­git­al tech­no­logy in­flu­enced the on­go­ing de­vel­op­ment of Wemb­ley Park? Tech­no­logy has really come in­to its own in the last 12 to 18 months as we have seen a real in­crease in mo­mentum as the evol­u­tion of the pro­ject moves from the ini­tial phys­ic­al in­fra­struc­ture to the di­git­al­isa­tion which sur­rounds and con­nects the phys­ic­al space to its uses. This eco­sys­tem is be­ne­fit­ing us from an op­er­a­tion­al and data- driv­en in­form­a­tion per­spect­ive, while also en­han­cing the over­all cus­tom­er ex­per­i­ence through con­veni­ence and qual­ity of amen­it­ies and ser­vice.   In 2020 we ap­poin­ted our first chief tech­no­logy of­ficer to bring to­geth­er our am­bi­tious build­ing in­form­a­tion, mod­el­ling and data cap­ab­il­it­ies and Quintain Liv­ing’s di­git­al mar­ket­ing, leas­ing and cus­tom­er en­gage­ment plat­form, all un­der­pinned by our in­teg­rated fibre net­work. Can you provide an ex­ample which brings this to life? In re­cent months we have im­ple­men­ted a Quintain Liv­ing App which, born out of res­id­ents’ feed­back, gives them simple ac­cess dir­ect from their smart­phone to in­form­a­tion and book­ing cap­ab­il­it­ies for re­tail and leis­ure amen­it­ies, vis­it­or park­ing, events and activ­it­ies across the cam­pus, and of­fers and pro­mo­tions. It also em­powers res­id­ents to form their own so­cial com­munit­ies, such as dog-walk­ing groups and sports clubs. To mo­tiv­ate con­sist­ent en­gage­ment and long-term en­gage­ment with the app, we have em­barked on a gami­fic­a­tion ap­proach with our cus­tom­ers, such as of­fer­ing prizes such as tick­ets for events at The SSE Arena, Wemb­ley and dis­count vouch­ers for the most eco-con­scious res­id­ents us­ing the least en­ergy. These ini­ti­at­ives have been very well re­ceived.We work closely with our res­id­ents, us­ing their feed­back to learn and con­tinu­ally im­prove our op­er­a­tions - good tech­no­logy should be win-win for both parties.  For ex­ample, provid­ing res­id­ents with di­git­al, con­tact­less entry to their build­ing is ef­fi­cient, safe and se­cure for them, while en­abling us to cap­ture a lot of help­ful real-time data by meas­ur­ing util­isa­tion of com­mun­al spaces at dif­fer­ent times of the day. Over the course of the last 18 months and the pan­dem­ic, how has tech­no­logy helped your com­mer­cial op­er­a­tions? Lock­down pre­ven­ted in-per­son view­ings, so we were able to bring our apart­ments and liv­ing ex­per­i­ence dir­ect to the phone, tab­let or laptop of pro­spect­ive ten­ants by cre­at­ing a unique vir­tu­al tour. The tech­no­logy and plat­form be­hind this cap­ab­il­ity was already in place.We had in­ves­ted in a di­git­al mod­el of Wemb­ley Park and to­geth­er with our leas­ing sys­tem we were able to of­fer pro­spect­ive res­id­ents a fant­ast­ic and suc­cess­ful al­tern­at­ive to an in-per­son tour. Through our web­site, view­ers could sub­mit their cri­ter­ia for ac­com­mod­a­tion be­fore re­ceiv­ing a tailored three-di­men­sion­al tour of rooms on of­fer, and all shared and amen­ity space of in­terest. In­terest could be re­gistered on­line, with the sub­sequent doc­u­ment­a­tion pro­cess man­aged di­git­ally, al­low­ing res­id­ents to view, com­plete con­tracts and move in without vis­it­ing first. While the tra­di­tion­al in-per­son view­ings re­turned when com­ing out of lock­down, this di­git­al ser­vice re­mains pop­u­lar for those people liv­ing far away for whom an ini­tial re­mote view­ing is more prac­tic­al and time ef­fi­cient. It also sup­ports in-per­son view­ings by al­low­ing the Quintain Liv­ing team to show our nine de­vel­op­ments across site di­git­ally, from with­in the leas­ing of­fice, be­fore pro­spect­ive res­id­ents short­l­ist the apart­ments they want to see. Which ad­vances in di­git­al tech­no­logy are set to make the biggest im­pact on real es­tate over the next ten years?  While Build­ing In­form­a­tion Mod­el­ling (BIM) has been around for a while, we are only just start­ing to see it be­ing used to its full po­ten­tial. At Quintain, we are a ver­tic­ally in­teg­rated de­veloper and have been design­ing in BIM for sev­er­al years. This has be­ne­fits across the whole busi­ness, from design and de­vel­op­ment through to op­er­a­tion­al ef­fi­cien­cies. For ex­ample, we are cur­rently de­vel­op­ing a di­git­al twin of Wemb­ley Park both above and be­low ground. This will en­able us to make in­formed, real time de­cisions and factor in the long term op­er­a­tion­al and main­ten­ance life-cycle costs at a de­cision stage, in­clud­ing the em­bod­ied car­bon con­tent. Secondly, the in­flu­ence of gen­er­at­ive design will grow sig­ni­fic­antly. Soft­ware with al­gorithms can be used very ef­fect­ively when pro­grammed with the key para­met­ers such as plan­ning and day­light. Without ini­tially need­ing to en­gage with an ar­chi­tect, sev­er­al it­er­at­ive op­tions can be as­sessed based on weighted cri­ter­ia. We have already run a tri­al at Wemb­ley Park us­ing this pro­cess, it is a phe­nom­en­ally clev­er tool which is go­ing to be­come more soph­ist­ic­ated as it evolves and could have a big im­pact on our in­dustry.